The main goal of the summer schools is to facilitate interdisciplinary exchange by educating both the PhD students and the PIs. The summer schools took each two weeks and were held in Erlangen at the beginning of the summer break (end of July or early August) in 2016 and 2017. The first one was on "Macroevolutionary and Macroecological Impacts of Temperature-Related Stresses". The second had the theme "Tracing magmatic activity and earth system change" focusing on the use of proxy data. Participation in summer schools is mandatory for PhD students, voluntary for PIs (except if they are teaching) and open for interested students up to a maximum of 20.