International Fossil
     Coral and Reef Society

Bibliography 2019

Varia||Porifera||Tabulata||Rugosa||Scleractinia||Various fossils||Reefs||Biographical||
April MarchMarch March MarchDec-2018MarchAug-2018

Varia - April 2019

back to top

BERKOWSKI B., JAKUBOWICZ M., BELKA Z., KROL J. J., ZAPALSKI M. K. 2019. Recurring cryptic ecosystems in Lower to Middle Devonian carbonate mounds of Hamar Laghdad (Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology online since 13 March 2019; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2019.03.011
[highlights]: * cryptic communities developed in Devonian deep-water carbonate mounds; ** the communities were dominated by solitary rugose corals growing upside down; *** changes in composition and diversity were related to variations in local physical environment; **** local species pool was a decisive factor in determining ecological successions of the cryptic communities; ***** communities affected by hydrothermal and methane venting included endemic taxa and small specimens.
CIPRIANI A., FABBI S., LATHUILIERE B., SANTANTONIO M. 2019. A reef coral in the condensed Maiolica facies on the Mt Nerone pelagic carbonate platform (Marche Apennines): The enigma of ancient pelagic deposits. Sedimentary Geology 385, 1 May 2019: 45-60; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2019.03.007.
[paper highlights: * a z-coral was recovered in upper Tithonian condensed pelagites on the Mt Nerone PCP; ** z-corals can constrain water paleodepth also in pelagic successions; *** Ogilvinella is a typical reef coral suggesting a circa 30m paleodepth]
A coral interpreted as a shallow-water zooxanthellate (z-) form has been recovered from the uppermost part of a condensed, pelagic carbonate platform-top succession, in levels with transitional characters between the Jurassic Bugarone Group and the Maiolica Formation, a calpionellid-bearing pelagic deposit. While the existence of z-corals in the Jurassic pelagic facies of northern Apenninic structural highs is well documented, with early Tithonian forms diagnostic of the lower layers of the photic zone, the species described in this paper is slightly younger (late Tithonian), possesses a different morphology and is known from typical reef facies. While this finding provides welcome evidence for the paleodepth interpretation of otherwise enigmatic facies, it also challenges our understanding of pelagic deposits, in paleoenvironments that have no modern counterparts.
CORDIE D. R., DORNBOS S. Q., MARENCO P. J., OJI T., GONCHIGDORJ S. 2019. Depauperate skeletonized reef-dwelling fauna of the early Cambrian: Insights from archaeocyathan reef ecosystems of western Mongolia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 514, 15: 206-221; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.10.027
[highlights]: * Mongolian Cambrian reefs had low macroscopic reef-dweller point count values; ** decreases in global burial of organic carbon may coincide with local faunal changes; *** Ordovician reefs had more abundant and functionally diverse reef dwellers; **** rise of skeletonization may promote diversity in ancient reef ecosystems.
SALAMON K., KOLODZIEJ B., STEFANSKYI V. L. 2019. Simple methods for detection of microborings produced by coral-associated microendoliths. Facies 65: 16; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10347-019-0560-9
Well-preserved skeletons of Paleocene and Eocene scleractinians and octocorals (Polytremacis sp.) from Poland and Ukraine were studied to reveal microborings produced in vivo by coral-associated microendoliths. Microborings (mostly <5μm in diameter) are hardly visible, if at all, under a petrographic microscope. Their resin casts are obtained, however, through the epoxy vacuum cast-embedding technique and observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Three-dimensional resin-filled (cast) microborings are also clearly visible under SEM in acid-etched petrographic thin-sections. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy imaging (BSE) is useful for visualization of the microborings during SEM study of both etched and non-etched thin-sections. A simple but very effective method to reveal the dense network of resin casts of microborings is observations of etched thin-sections under the petrographic microscope. Fluorescence microscopy (FL), especially with application of blue and green filters (Nikon's B-1A and G-2A filter cubes), is recommended if etching thin-sections or polished samples is not possible. However, color contrast between the resin casts and the calcium carbonate of the coral skeleton was strong enough only in some examined thin-sections. The cathodoluminescence microscopy, the other method, does not require the etching of the thin-sections and is potentially useful for detection of microborings filled with calcite cement, although this technique was not applicable for the samples studied. Symbiotic coral-microendolith association (in broad meaning of the term symbiosis) is a common phenomenon in modern corals, but its fossil record is very sparse. This study shows that empty microborings can be common in fossil corals, allowing preparation of the resin casts. Some of the tested methods permit rapid detection of resin-filled microborings in thin-sections even by non-specialists, and selection of samples for SEM studies. Corals from claystones and mudstones, usually less affected by diagenesis, have higher taphonomic potential for preservation of empty microborings than corals from reef facies. The methods discussed here can be also applied for rapid detection of post-mortem microborings occurring in other substrates.
ZAPALSKI M., BERKOWSKI B. 2018. The Silurian mesophotic coral ecosystems: 430 million years of photosymbiosis. Coral Reefs https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-018-01761-w [accepted 20 December 2018]
The Silurian Period witnessed one of the most profound intervals of reef development in the history of the Earth, formed in large part by tabulate and rugose corals and stromatoporoid assemblages. One of the best-known examples of Silurian reefs (bioherms) is those exposed on the Baltic island of Gotland (Sweden). The stratigraphic sequence below these bioherms is represented by the Visby Beds (Lower Wenlock, ca. 430 Ma) that record in their lower sections (Lower Visby Beds) environments near the lower limit of the euphotic zone. Here, we describe platy tabulate coral assemblages from the uppermost Lower Visby Beds that represent a mesophotic coral ecosystem (MCE) potentially spread over 40 km. This MCE is dominated by platy tabulate corals, with accessory branching tabulates and solitary and phaceloid rugose corals. Algae are absent, likely as a result of taphonomic bias. It is possible that other MCEs of similar age are recorded on other Silurian tropical shelves: Anticosti Island (Laurentia, present Arctic Canada) and Hiiumaa (Baltica, present Estonia), in particular, may possess candidate early Silurian MCE assemblages. At a minimum, however, tabulate corals acquired photosymbionts during the early Silurian (Wenlock), which resulted in the development of both MCEs and shallow-water reef systems and contributed to the great expansion of the mid-Palaeozoic reef complexes.
ALLISON N., COLE C., HINTZ C., HINTZ K., FINCH A. A. 2018. Influences of coral genotype and seawater pCO2 on skeletal Ba/Ca and Mg/Ca in cultured massive Porites spp. corals. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 505, 15 September 2018: 351-358; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.06.015
[highlights] * KD Ba/Ca vary significantly between massive Porites spp. coral genotypes ** seawater pCO2 affects KD Ba/Ca significantly in 1 of 3 coral genotypes *** KD Mg/Ca varies significantly between some duplicates of the same coral.
BERRY K. 2017. New paleontological constraints on the paleogeography of the Western Interior Seaway near the end of the Cretaceous (late Campanian-Maastrichtian) with a special emphasis on the paleogeography of southern Colorado, U.S.A. Rocky Montain Geology 52, 1: 1-16.
[...] Strong marine connections among the WIS [Western Interior Seaway], the Gulf of Mexico, and the North Atlantic appear to have persisted at least until the end of the early Maastrichtian. A marine connection between the WIS and the Gulf of Mexico is projected to have lasted through the end of the Cretaceous. Closure of the WIS to the Arctic Ocean is projected to have occurred earlier and farther north than other models, which close the WIS to the Arctic Ocean through the formation of the Dakota Isthmus in the latest Maastrichtian. Closure of the WIS in Canada during the early late-Maastrichtian (Hoploscaphites birkelundae ammonite biozone) appears to have permitted the dispersal of land plants, such as "Cissites" panduratus and Credneria protophylloides, among landmasses previously isolated by epeiric seaways covering much of North America and western Greenland during the Late Cretaceous and is consistent with preexisting biostratigraphic constraints on the paleogeography of the WIS. [end-part of an abstract; corals are mentioned in the text; Löser]
BONILLA GONZALEZ O. A., LOPEZ-HORGUE M. A., LOSER H., FERNANDEZ MENDIOLA P. A. 2018. Un ejemplo clave en la evolución de los corales: los arrecifes del Aptiense-Albiense (Cretácico Inferior) de la Cuenca Vasco-Cantábrica. In: Badiola, A., Gómez-Olivencia, A., Pereda Suberiola, X. (eds.), Registro fósil y patrimonio de los Pirineos occidentales: una visión desde la Geodiversidad. Servicio Central de Publicaciones del Gobierno Vasco, Vitoria Gasteiz, p. 81-83.
JIANG Wei, YU Kefu, SONG Yinxian, ZHAO Jian-xin, FENG Yue-xing, WANG Yinghui, XU Shendong 2018. Coral geochemical record of submarine groundwater discharge back to 1870 in the northern South China Sea. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 507, 15 October 2018: 30-38; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.05.045
[highlights] * coral REE [rare earth elements] record can be applied as a proxy of local submarine groundwater discharge ** the correlation coefficients between coral REE and Ba were associated with the PDO [Pacific decadal oscillations] *** the surface currents from surrounding areas contribute to the surface seawater Ba.
KANI T., ISOZAKI Y., HAYASHI R., ZAKHAROV Yu., POPOV A. 2018. Middle Permian (Capitanian) seawater 87Sr/86Sr minimum coincided with disappearance of tropical biota and reef collapse in NE Japan and Primorye (Far East Russia). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 499, 15 June 2018: 13-21; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.03.033
[keywords: Cd isotopes; primary productivity; mass extinction; Permian-Triassic boundary; Meishan section]
Highlights: * Cd isotopic variations from the Meishan GSSP section were investigated; ** shift of Cd isotopes corresponds with each episode of mass extinction during the PTB; *** decline of marine primary productivity may result in mass extinction as revealed by Cd isotopes; **** Cd isotopes can be a proxy to reconstruct past ocean circulation and nutrient utilization.
KOLODZIEJ B., IDAKIEVA V., IVANOV M., SALAMON K. 2016. New record of endolithic algae syn-vivo associated with an Early Cretaceous coral. Carnets de Geologie 16, 27: 633-640; doi 10.4267/2042/61885; online since December 31, 2016.
[keywords: microborings, euendoliths, symbiosis, corals, Barremian, Bulgaria]
Euendolithic microorganisms (boring endoliths) syn-vivo associated with modern corals are commonly reported, but their fossil record is extremely rare. This paper reports the new finding recognized in the colonial scleractinian coral Clausastrea saltensis from the Upper Barremian of Bulgaria. Large microborings (up to 50 ?m, most ca. 15-25 ?m in diameter) filled with calcite cement are distributed medially along coral septa of some corallites. Borings were produced by microeuendoliths growing from the skeleton interior outward during the life of the coral host. They are compared to traces produced by the recent oligophotic filamentous chlorophyte Ostreobium, which is known to be the most common skeleton-dwelling alga in modern living corals and regarded as neutral or beneficial to the coral. In terms of general morphology, diameter and distribution pattern, the borings are similar to those recently recognized in the Early Cretaceous microsolenid coral.
KROL J. J., JAKUBOWICZ M., ZAPALSKI M. K., BERKOWSKI B. 2018. Massive tabulates in competition for space: a case study from Aferdou el Mrakib (Middle Devonian, Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 497, 15 May 2018: 105-116; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.02.009
[keywords: paleoecology; Tabulata; coral-stromatoporoid reefs; Givetian; survival strategy]
Aferdou el Mrakib, the largest carbonate buildup of the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, is known for its rich, Givetian fossil assemblage, dominated by corals. The core part of the reef was either removed by erosion, or pervasively dolomitized, with corals preserved mostly in the talus beds deposited in the fore-reef environment. This paper focuses on massive colonial tabulate corals, represented by Heliolites porosus and members of the genus Favosites, which constituted the largest tabulates of Aferdou el Mrakib and are frequently found in the reef-derived debris. The study reconstructs survival strategies of these corals based on an analysis of their morphologies, growth patterns, as well as records of interactions with other organisms. Both H. porosus and Favosites are represented predominantly by domal growth forms. As compared to the favositids, the coralla of H. porosus are considerably more abundant and attained notably larger sizes, with some of the colonies exceeding 1m in diameter. Even the largest coralla were in places found toppled and in upside-down positions, indicating their downslope transportation by gravity-flows, and possible periodic involvement of high-energy events. H. porosus commonly encrusted and was encrusted by other organisms. The encrustations usually coincide with very frequent, sediment-induced growth interruption surfaces found within the coralla. The growth interruption surfaces rarely preserve the original sediment, attesting the presence of mechanisms of sediment removal by the coral. Similar surfaces occur also in the Favosites coralla, but they are less common and often lined by distinct sediment intercalations. Few encrustations on Favosites were demonstrated to have happened post-mortem, while encrustations on H. porosus typically formed syn-vivo, as evidenced by the coral successfully overgrowing its epibionts. H. porosus was a resistant species, which could endure frequent episodes of sediment influx and defend itself from aggressive encrusters. Favosites colonies, in turn, relied on selective settlement on more sparsely occupated substrates available in deeper parts of the Aferdou el Mrakib reef.
PEREIRA N. S., SIAL A. N., KILBOURNE K. H., LIU S.-C., SHEN C.-C., ULLMANN C. V., FREI R., KORTE C., KIKUCHI R. K. P., FERREIRA V. P., BRAGA B. L. S. S. 2018. Carbon stable isotope record in the coral species Siderastrea stellata: a link to the Suess effect in the tropical South Atlantic Ocean. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 497, 15 May 2018: 82-90; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.02.007
[keywords: coral geochemistry; climate changes; CO2; coral-based archives] Highlights: * short and long-term variability of coral-based ?13C records from the tropical South Atlantic Ocean; ** the Suess effect record for the tropical South Atlantic Ocean; *** coral-based ?13C records as a potential proxy for tracking changes in the isotopic composition of local dissolved inorganic carbon.
PLETNEV S. P., MELNIKOV M. E., PUNINA T. A., ZAKHAROV Yu. D. 2015. [Age and paleogeographic stages of development guyot of magellan seamounts (Pacific ocean).] Geologiya i poleznye iskopaemye Mirovogo okeana 1: 46-57. [in Russian]
Expeditionary investigations carried out by GKC "Yuzhmorgeologiya" in 2000-2010 i.e. in the Pacific Ocean on board R/V "Gelendzhik" resulted in new materials that made it possible to reveal the features of morphological structure of Magellan seamounts and to elucidate the matter and paleontological character of the structural formation complexes of rocks from Early Cretaceous to Pleistocene inclusive. Analysis of macro- and microfauna in sedimentary rocks allowed us to distinguish the "transgressive" phases in development of the Guyot: Cenomanian-Turonian, Late Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Paleocene-Middle Eocene and Late Cenozoic. There is Oligocene hiatus in all guyots of the Magellan Seamounts. [original abstract; also corals are mentioned and listed; Löser]
PRUSS S. B., DWYER C. H., SMITH E. F., MACDONALD F. A., TOSCA N. J. 2018 (in press). Phosphatized early Cambrian archaeocyaths and small shelly fossils (SSFs) of southwestern Mongolia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology in press; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.07.002 (online since 5 July 2017)
[keywords: phosphatization; taphonomy; Tommotian; Salaagol; Terreneuvian]
Highlights: * Archaeocyaths from the lower Cambrian of southwestern Mongolia were investigated; ** Arcahaeocyaths and associated small shelly fossils (SSFs) are phosphatized; *** the minerals in the assemblages suggest transportation to a low oxygen setting; **** analysis of these fossils links taphonomy to palaeoenvironment of preservation.
VINN O., ERNST A., TOOM U. 2017. Rare rugosan-bryozoan intergrowth from the Upper Ordovician of Estonia. Carnets de Geologie 17, 7: 145-151; doi 10.4267/2042/62664; online since October 16, 2017.
[keywords: symbiosis, bioclaustrations, bryozoans, corals, Katian, Baltica]
Two relatively large specimens of the rugosan Lambelasma sp. are fully intergrown with the bryozoan Stigmatella massalis colony. The intergrown specimen occurs in the Oandu Regional Stage (lower Katian) of Estonia and constitutes the earliest record of bryozoan-rugosan intergrowth from Baltica. Most likely this symbiotic association was accidental. Rugosans presumably benefitted from the bryozoan, which served as an anchor to stabilize them in hydrodynamically active waters. The lack of malformations and no decrease in the size of bryozoan zooids near the rugosans indicate a lack of negative effect of the rugosans on the bryozoan. Bryozoan-rugosan symbiosis is only known from the Ordovician of Baltica and Laurentia.
VINN O., TOOM U., ERNST A. 2018. Intergrowth of Orbignyella germana Bassler, 1911 (Bryozoa) and Lambelasma carinatum Weyer, 1993 (Rugosa) in the pelmatozoan-bryozoan-receptaculitid reefs from the Late Ordovician of Estonia. Palaeontologia Electronica 21.1.4A 1-7. https://doi.org/10.26879/818
[keywords: Intergrowth; symbiosis; rugosans; bryozoans; Katian; Baltica]
The earliest known rugosan-bryozoan intergrowth is reported from the early Katian of Estonia. A specimen of Orbignyella germana Bassler, 1911, from pelmatozoan-bryozoan-receptaculitid reefs of the Vasalemma Formation shows intergrowth with rugosans Lambelasma carinatum Weyer, 1993. The morphology of the bryozoan colony does not show any malformations or changes in zooid size near the embedded rugosans. It is likely that intergrowth between L. carinatum and O. germana was purely accidental. Relatively high population densities and restricted space for growth in the reef may have caused this intergrowth. Rugosans may have benefitted from this association in achieving a stable substrate in shallow and hydrodynamically active waters of the reef environment, whereas bryozoans obviously used corals as a substrate. Lambelasma may have been especially prone for intergrowth with bryozoans as it participates in three associations in the Late Ordovician of Estonia.
WRIGHT J. K. 2017. The Corallian Group (Upper Jurassic) of Wiltshire, England. 3: Lyneham to Royal Wootton Bassett. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 128, 4: 626-635.
New information from boreholes at Lyneham and the construction of a relief road south of Royal Wootton Bassett has been combined with field mapping to produce the first synthesis of the transition between the Upper Jurassic shelf sediments of the Wessex Basin and the laterally equivalent clay facies sediments overlying the East Midlands Microcraton. Periodic uplifts of the Wootton Bassett High at the northern margin of the Wessex Basin saw the repeated attempts to spread clay facies sedimentation southwards into central and southern Wiltshire frustrated by uplifts of the high. This resulted in periods of erosion followed by new episodes of shallow water shelf sedimentation succeeded by deeper water strata, these beds resting upon the eroded edges of the older sediments. [original abstract; coral taxa are mentioned in the text; Löser]
ZATON M., ZAPALSKI M. K., BERKOWSKI B., WRZOLEK T. 2018. Cryptic encrusting communities in a Middle Devonian mesophotic paleoenvironment of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 501, 15 July 2018: 82-91; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.04.015
Highlights: * studied are epibionts from the Middle Devonian mesophotic reefs of Laskowa quarry, overgrowing alveolitid tabulates and chaetetid sponges; ** encrusting communities are characterized by modest diversity and high dominance; *** there is distinct polarization of cryptic vs open-surface encrusters; **** crytptic encrusters are mostly brachiopods (Davidsonia) and microconchids, open-surface dwellers are mostly auloporids; ***** these communities developed in a low-light and nutrient-poor paleoenvironment.
ZLATARSKI V. N. 2018. Investigations on mesophotic coral ecosystems in Cuba (1970-1973) and Mexico (1983-1984). CICIMAR Oceanides 33, 2: 27-43.
[keywords: Mesophotic coral ecosystems, Scleractinia, Cuba, Mexico]
After a pioneering study of Jamaican coral reefs, the Cuban archipelago was the second to be surveyed by SCUBA for scleractinian corals and reef life to a depth of 90m, sampling all phenotypes. Regrettably, the published data on the mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) of Cuba, collected 1970 to 1973, have been ignored. This is also true for the published data on the MCEs of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, collected 1983 to 1984. These two investigations described immense areas exhibiting a rich continuum of coral life, from shallow reefs into MCEs without scleractinian faunal break, and no depth-specialists species complex. Instead, a morphological changeover of three-dimensional corallum into two-dimensional corallum was observed and documented. The existing data on the Cuban and Mexican MCEs (now 45 and 34 years old, respectively) present a unique opportunity for long-term status and ecosystem trends analysis. MCEs require terminological clarification from collaborative efforts to effectively use the globally available data.

back to top

Porifera - March 2019

LUO Cui, REITNER J. 2019. Three-dimensionally preserved stem-group hexactinellid sponge fossils from lower Cambrian (Stage 2) phosphorites of China. Paläontologische Zeitschrift [online first] https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-018-00441-y
[keywords: Sponges; Hexactinellida; Phosphorite; Cambrian; Niutitang Formation; Hunan; China]
Three-dimensionally, in situ preserved sponge fossils were collected from the phosphorites at the basal Niutitang Formation (Cambrian Stage 2) in Hunan Province, China. These fossils are preserved as nodular bodies in authigenic carbonaceous cherty Ca-phosphorites. Spicules are either completely embedded in cryptocrystalline phosphate or immediately overgrown by early isopachous phosphate cements, leaving the remaining interspace filled by other deposits. Two specimens are described in detail as examples. One is composed of hexactins of at least three size-hierarchies, the small spicules in which may be interpreted as microscleres. The other, investigated using grinding tomography, shows a skeletal frame composed of pentactins, hexactins, and diactins. These spicules exhibit a weak pattern of perpendicular orientation in 3D space and a possible differentiation of hypodermalia and parenchymalia. These skeletal architectures belong to new taxonomic groups and seem to represent very basic forms of hexactinellids. Disarticulated spicules scattered in other parts of the investigated phosphorites indicate a still unexplored diversity of the fossil community, and some show combined features, which were regarded characteristic and mutually exclusive in living hexactinellids and demosponges. This work suggests that the lower Cambrian phosphorite Lagerstätten have a great potential to preserve details of the early evolutionary history of sponges.
WANG Qiu-jun, PENG Jin, WEN Rong-qin, LIU Shuai, WANG De-zhi 2018. The sponge assemblage from the Cambrian Balang fauna of Jianhe, Guizhou. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 2018, 3: 312-320.
[keywords: sponge, Balang Fauna, Balang Formation, Cambrian, Guizhou of China]
Sponge fossils described herein are from the Cambrian Balang Fauna of Guizhou and represent a newly discovered group of this biota. The sponge assemblage was collected from the Lazizhai section of the Balang Formation at Jianhe and is dominated by well-preserved fossils, which reveals high species diversity. These sponge fossils include representatives of Leptomitus tereticusculus Chenet al.,1989, Leptomitus cf. L. conicus Garcia Bellido et al., 2007, Paraleptomitella sp., Choiaella cf. C. ovata Zhao and Yang in Yang et al., 2003, Choia sp., Saetaspongia sp. and some undetermined taxa. The newly discovered sponge fossils not only enrich our knowledge of the diversity and composition of the Balang Fauna but also extend the geographic distribution of Cambrian (Stage 4) sponges, as well as provide new material for taxonomy, paleoecology and taphonomy of Cambrian sponges.
BERESI M. S., BOTTING J. P., PALAFOX J. J., BUITRON SANCHEZ B. E. 2017. New reticulosan sponges from the middle Cambrian of Sonora, Mexico. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 62, 4: 691-703; doi:https://doi.org/10.4202/app.00378.2017
[keywords: Porifera, Hexactinellida, Reticulosa, Burgess Shale-type fauna, biogeography, Cambrian, Mexico]
A small assemblage of extremely well-preserved fragments of new sponges has been discovered in calcipelites of the middle Cambrian El Mogallón Formation in the Cerro El Mogallón section, near Arivechi in eastern Sonora, Mexico. The assemblage includes two new reticulosan species referred to Ratcliffespongia arivechensis sp. nov. and Valospongia sonorensis sp. nov., combined with disarticulated remains assigned to Kiwetinokia and additional, currently unidentifiable taxa. The new species represent the first records of these Cambrian genera from Mexico, although they are widely distributed at low latitudes, being previously best known from Utah but extending through Laurentia and South China. This middle Cambrian fauna indicates that there was considerable continuity of the deeper-water hexactinellid sponges between the warm peri-platform of Laurentia and the peri-continental Cambrian platform of Sonora. The new material supports the impression of extremely wide distribution of Cambrian sponge genera, with local diversification at species level within regions, in contrast to much greater generic-level endemism during the Ordovician Period.
CARRERA M. G., RUSTAN J. J., VACCARI N. E., EZPELETA M. 2018. A new Mississippian hexactinellid sponge from the western Gondwana: Taxonomic and paleobiogeographic implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 63, 1: 63-70; doi:https://doi.org/10.4202/app.00403.2017
[keywords: Porifera, Hexactinellida, Reticulosa, Carboniferous, Mississippian, Argentina]
A Mississippian hexactinellid sponge from western Argentina improves the extremely poor late Paleozoic sponge records from Gondwana. The sponge is included in the subfamily Thysanodictyinae of family Dictyospongiidae. The new genus and species Minitaspongia parvis is erected, and its well-preserved spicular structure is described in detail representing the first approximation of the spicule assemblage in Thysanodictyinae. The skeleton is clathrate, three-dimensional with at least two ranks of rectangular openings. This first report of this subfamily outside North America represents the best-known hexactinellid and the first dictyosponge record from the Carboniferous of Gondwana. Unlike the occurrences of Thysanodictyinae in North America, with thick skeletons linked to high-energy shallow water settings, Minitaspongia occurs in low-energy water siliciclastic settings related to a cold climate and glacimarine deposits. Accordingly, the complex wall structure of this sponge should not be invoked as a necessary adaptation to high energy and shallow water settings.
MALYSHEVA E. N. 2018. A New Sphinctozoan Species (Porifera), Colospongia lenis sp. nov., from the Upper Permian Reefs of Southern Primorye. Paleontological Journal 52, 3: 231-233; DOI: 10.1134/S0031030118030085
[keywords: Sphinctozoan, Upper Permian, southern Primorye]
A new sphinctozoan species, Colospongia lenis sp. nov., from the Upper Permian deposits of the southern Primorye (Nakhodka Reef, Bezymyannaya Mountain) is described.
PISERA A., MANCONI R., SIVER P. A., WOLFE A. P. 2016. The sponge genus Ephydatia from the high-latitude middle Eocene: environmental and evolutionary significance. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 90, 4: 673-680; online since 28 September 2016.
[keywords: Porifera - Freshwater sponges - Eocene - Canada - Climate - Morphological stasis]
The freshwater sponge species Ephydatia cf. facunda Weltner, 1895 (Spongillida, Spongillidae) is reported for the first time as a fossil from middle Eocene lake sediments of the Giraffe kimberlite maar in northern Canada. The sponge is represented by birotule gemmuloscleres as well as oxea megascleres. Today, E. facunda inhabits warm-water bodies, so its presence in the Giraffe locality provides evidence of a warm climate at high latitudes during the middle Eocene. The morphological similarity of the birotules to modern conspecific forms suggests protracted morphological stasis, comparable to that reported for other siliceous microfossils from the same locality.
SCHUSTER A., CARDENAS P., PISERA A., POMPONI S., KELLY M., WORHEIDE G., ERPENBECK D. 2018. Seven new deep-water Tetractinellida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the Galápagos Islands - morphological descriptions and DNA barcodes. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society; doi 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx110 (23 March 2018).
The Galápagos Islands, positioned in the confluence of warm and coldwater currents in the Eastern Pacific, is well known for the high degree of endemism of its marine invertebrate fauna. This fauna has been studied extensively in recent years: the echinoderms, corals and other benthic cnidarians, but little is known about the deep- and shallow-water sponge faunas. To date, only 70 sponge species have been described from the Galápagos Islands, 37 of which are endemic. Of these 70 species, only one shallow-water species of desma-bearing Tetractinellida (Demospongiae), Corallistes isabela, has been reported. In 1995, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Florida, led an expedition around the Galápagos archipelago, focussed on the collection of deep-water Porifera. Here, we describe seven new species and provide DNA barcodes for the tetractinellids from these collections. Phylogenetic relationships of these new species are discussed and compared with other material from the Caribbean, the Central and West Pacific Oceans. The new species represent five genera (Craniella, and desma-bearing Tetractinellida Neophrissospongia, Corallistes, Racodiscula and Scleritoderma). Phylogenetic reconstructions combining independent markers (mtDNA and rDNA) support the generic affiliation of these new species and confirm the separation of Eastern Pacific species from Caribbean and Central to West Pacific species. [original abstract; Wrzolek]
SCHUSTER A., PISERA A., KELLY M., BELL L. J., POMPONI S., WORHEIDE G., ERPENBECK D. 2018. New species and a molecular dating analysis of Vetulina Schmidt, 1879 (Porifera: Demospongiae: Sphaerocladina) reveal an ancient relict fauna with Tethys origin. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society; doi 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx114 (14 March 2018).
Vetulina Schmidt, 1879 (Demospongiae, Sphaerocladina, Vetulinidae) currently constitutes the only living representative of a once diverse Mesozoic group. Molecular data place Vetulina as a sister taxon to freshwater sponges (Spongillida) despite different skeletal composition. To date, only three extant species of this desma-bearing 'rock sponge' have been described from the Caribbean and Indian Ocean, all with similar growth forms and spiculation, but different desma and surface details. Comparison of these genetically very similar species was not possible until the present study. The distribution of Vetulina is taken to be a consequence of the closure of the Tethyan Seaway in the Early Miocene, suggesting a more widely distributed population with its origin in the Tethys Sea. To support this hypothesis in a molecular palaeobiological framework, we first increased the taxon sampling by describing and sequencing two new species of Vetulina from the Bahamas and Philippines and report Vetulina stalactites from nine additional locations in the Tropical Western Atlantic. A robust, dated phylogeny was calculated from the combined dataset and amended by five representative fossils. Our results point to an Eocene origin for Vetulina, even before the closure of the Tethyan Seaway in the Miocene, supporting the hypothesis that Vetulina presents a relict fauna with its origin in the Tethys Sea.[original abstract; Wrzolek]
SCHUSTER A., VARGAS S., KNAPP I. S., POMPONI S. A., TOONEN R. J., ERPENBECK D., WORHEIDE G. 2018. Divergence times in demosponges (Porifera): first insights from new mitogenomes and the inclusion of fossils in a birth-death clock model. BMC Evolutionary Biology (2018) 18: 114.
[keywords: Mitochondrial genomes, Molecular clock, next-generation sequencing, Demospongiae, Fossilized birth-death model, Porifera, Molecular dating]
Background: Approximately 80% of all described extant sponge species belong to the class Demospongiae. Yet, despite their diversity and importance, accurate divergence times are still unknown for most demosponge clades. The estimation of demosponge divergence time is key to answering fundamental questions on the origin of Demospongiae, their diversification and historical biogeography. Molecular sequence data alone is not informative on an absolute time scale, and therefore needs to be "calibrated" with additional data such as fossils. Here, we calibrate the molecular data with the fossilized birth-death model, which compared to strict node dating, allows for the inclusion of young and old fossils in the analysis of divergence time. We use desma-bearing sponges, a diverse group of demosponges that form rigid skeletons and have a rich and continuous fossil record dating back to the Cambrian (~500 Ma), to date the demosponge radiation and constrain the timing of key evolutionary events, like the transition from marine to freshwater habitats. To infer a dated phylogeny of Demospongiae we assembled the mitochondrial genomes of six desma-bearing demosponges from reduced-representation genomic libraries. The total dataset included 33 complete demosponge mitochondrial genomes and 30 fossils.
Results: Our study supports a Neoproterozoic origin of Demospongiae. Novel age estimates for the split of freshwater and marine sponges dating back to the Carboniferous and the previously assumed recent (~18 Ma) diversification of freshwater sponges is supported. Moreover, we provide detailed age estimates for a possible diversification of Tetractinellidae (~315 Ma), the Astrophorina (~240 Ma), the Spirophorina (~120 Ma) and the family Corallistidae (~188 Ma) all of which are considered as key groups for dating the Demospongiae due to their extraordinary rich and continuous fossil history.
Conclusion: This study provides novel insights into the evolution of Demospongiae. Observed discrepancies of our dated phylogeny with their putative first fossil appearance dates are discussed for selected sponge groups. For instance, a Carboniferous origin of the order Tetractinellida seems to be too late, compared to their first appearance in the fossil record in the Middle Cambrian. This would imply that Paleozoic spicule forms are not homologous to post-Paleozoic forms.
VACELET J., JAMES B., ZIBROWIUS H. 2018. New records of the hypercalcified sponge Plectroninia (Calcarea, Minchinellidae) in the Recent deep ocean. Alcheringa 42, 2: 311-318; published online: 28 Nov 2017; https://doi.org/10.1080/03115518.2017.1395075.
[added volume, issue, and page numbers - listed in FC&P41: 83]
WOLNIEWICZ P. 2016. Representatives of the family Actinostromatidae (Stromatoporoidea) in the Devonian of southern Poland and their ecological significance. Geologos 22, 3: 227-249. https://doi.org/10.1515/logos-2016-0023
[keywords: central Europe; sponges; palaeoecology; palaeoenvironmental variation; intraskeletal variation]
Stromatoporoids of the family Actinostromatidae are common constituents of Givetian to Frasnian (Devonian) organic buildups. The species-level structure of actinostromatid assemblages from the Devonian of southern Poland is described in the present paper, with special emphasis on ecological factors that influenced species composition of the communities. Nine species of the genera Actinostroma and Bifariostroma are distinguished. Members of the family Actinostromatidae predominated in stromatoporoid assemblages within lower Frasnian carbonate buildup margins. The most diverse actinostromatid faunas were found within the middle Givetian Stringocephalus Bank, in the upper Givetian-lower Frasnian biostromal complex and in the lower Frasnian organic buildups. Species-level biodiversity was lowest within detrital facies which surrounded the Frasnian carbonate buildups. Species of Actinostroma with well-developed colliculi are commonest within the middle Givetian to early Frasnian coral-stromatoporoid biostromal complexes, whereas species with strongly reduced colliculi predominate early-middle Frasnian organic buildups. The skeletal structure of actinostromatids reflects environmental changes, documenting a transition from species with thin, close-set pillars and widely spaced laminae (common in the middle Givetian) to those with long, thick pillars and megapillars (in Bifariostroma), which were predominant during the early and middle Frasnian. The distribution of growth forms among species reveals a significant intraspecific variation. Species of Actinostroma can be either tabular or low domical, depending on the palaeoenvironmental setting. Thus, the present study confirms that stromatoporoid morphology was influenced by environmental conditions.

back to top

Tabulata - March 2019

KUN Liang, ELIAS R. J., DONG-JIN Lee 2019. Morphometrics, growth characteristics, and phylogenetic implications of Halysites catenularius (Tabulata, Silurian, Estonia). Journal of Paleontology 93, 2: 215-231; https://doi.org/10.1017/jpa.2018.73; published online: 03 December 2018.
Based on multivariate morphometric analysis, Halysites catenularius is identified from the Rumba Formation (Telychian) and Jaagarahu Formation (Sheinwoodian) of Estonia; H. priscus is confirmed as a junior synonym. Halysites catenularius, H. junior, and H. senior are shown to be closely related; H. catenularius is morphologically intermediate. Cyclomorphism in H. catenularius, recorded by fluctuations of corallite tabularial area, indicates an average annual growth rate of 6.0 mm, which is typical for halysitids. Tubules in H. catenularius, generated from small intramural openings between adjacent corallites, were involved in two types of interstitial increase. The intramural openings, three types of lateral increase, temporary agglutinated patches of corallites, and axial increase documented in H. catenularius resemble features in some species of Catenipora. These similarities are consistent with the interpretation that Halysites evolved from Catenipora. Evaluation of the possibility that both genera are polyphyletic will require further detailed analysis of additional species.
DOWELD A. B. 2015. Chekhovichia, a new generic replacement name for Rotalites Leleshus 1970 (Anthozoa: Heliolitoidea) non Lamarck 1801 (Protista: Foraminifera). Zootaxa 2015 Oct 29; 4034, 2: 399-400. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4034.2.11.
The genus Rotalites was established by Leleshus (1970: 97) for fossil Upper Silurian heliolitoids (Anthozoa) from Southern Tien Shan. However, the name is preoccupied by Rotalites Lamarck (1801: 401) of Foraminifera (Protista) (cf. Loeblich & Tappan, 1987). In accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Chekhovichia nom. nov. is proposed here as a replacement name for Rotalites Leleshus non Lamarck.
FRANKE C. 2016. Die Fauna der Berlé-Quarzite in Luxemburg und West-Eifel. Ferrantia 73 (C. Franke, ed., Beitrage zur Palaontologie des Unterdevons Luxemburgs 4): 5-110. [in German, with French and English abstracts]
[keywords: Luxembourg, Oesling; Germany, western Eifel; Lower Devonian, Upper Emsian; Berlé Quartzites; benthic fauna, Bivalvia, Brachiopoda]
As a part of the research project "Paleontology of the Lower Devonian in Luxembourg" of the Musée National d'histoire naturelle Luxembourg the present paper deals with the Berlé-Quartzites (lowermost Upper Emsian). A large number of new finds permit a fundamental revision of the paleontological inventary of the Berlé-Quartzites. In the course of this study approximately 1400 objects were evaluated. In addition to historical, sedimentological and paleogeographical aspects a discussion of the fauna stands in the foreground of this contribution. As a main result, it could be shown that about one third of all recorded species appear for the first time with the onset of the Upper Emsian. [extracted from an English anstract; the systematical part contains descriptions mostly of shelly fauna (bivalves and brachiopods dominate), but also of two corals: Pleurodictyum n. sp. cf. problematicum Goldfuss, 1829 (Taf. 2 Fig. 1-3) and Aulopora sp. (Taf. 2 Fig. 4-6); Table 18 in Appendix (pp 107-110) lists 4 coral taxa, besides the above mentioned also a rugosan Hapsiphyllum sp. and Tabulata fam. et gen. et sp. indet.]
PLUSQUELLEC Y., FRANKE C. 2016. Pleurodictyformes (Cnidaria, Tabulata) des Couches de Wiltz, Emsien supérieur, de l'Eifel occidental (Luxembourg, Allemagne). Ferrantia 73 (C. Franke, ed., Beitrage zur Palaontologie des Unterdevons Luxemburgs 4): 127-153. [in French, with English and German abstracts]
[keywords: Pleurodictyum-like corals, Pleurodictyum, Petridictyum, Kerforneidictyum, Cleistodictyum, Tabulata, Wiltz-Beds, Upper Emsian, Luxembourg, Allemagne]
A rich fauna of Pleurodictyum-like corals is described from the Wiltz Beds (Lower to Middle Upper Emsian). It consists of three species of Pleurodictyum: P. n. sp.? cf. giganteum Kayser, P. goldfussi n. sp., P. pruemensis n. sp. Two others Micheliniidae are recorded: Petridictyum sp. e.g. erbslochensis Plusquellec & Jahnke, 2007 nom. nud. and Kerforneidictyum cf. oeslingensis Plusquellec & Franke, 2010, as well as a Cleistoporidae: Cleistodictyum sp. cf. C. porosum Plusquellec, 1973. The fauna shows a clear renewal of the Pleurodictyum-like corals which are either represented by new species or by forms derived from the Lower Emsian ones. A relationship with the Daleje-Cancellata Event (DCE) is suggested.
PLUSQUELLEC Y., GALLE A., FRANKE C. 2016. New hyostragulids, Tabulata incertae sedis from the Wiltz-beds, Upper Emsian of Western Eifel (Germany). Ferrantia 73 (C. Franke, ed., Beitrage zur Palaontologie des Unterdevons Luxemburgs 4): 111-126. [in English, with German and French abstracts] [keywords: : Marekostragulum, Parostragulum, Cnidaria, Tabulata, Wiltz-beds, Lower Devonian, Western Eifel]
The very rare hyostragulids from the Upper Emsian of the Eifel (Wiltz-beds) are described for the first time and two new taxa are erected, Marekostragulum grafi n. sp. and Parostragulum problematicum n. gen. n. sp. In the latter taxon, the development of wedge-like cavities between the basal plate of the encrusting coral and the substrate to which it was attached is suspected to explain the peculiar morphology of the proximal side. This hypothesis is supported by the study of the modalities of fossilization of some hyostragulids from the Massif Armoricain and Bohemia. The paleogeographic distribution of the hyostragulids in South Laurussia is somewhat expanded by the new occurrences but they appear more diversified and show a certain endemic character.
PLUSQUELLEC Y., WRIGHT A. J. 2018. Revision of the Early Devonian tabulate coral Pleurodictyum bifidum from New South Wales. Alcheringa 42, 1: 22-36.
[keywords: Bifidomeria, Pleurodictyum, Roemeria, tabulate corals, Garra Formation, NSW, Early Devonian]
The tabulate coral Pleurodictyum bifidum Jones, 1944, from the Early Devonian (Pragian or lower Emsian) Garra Formation of central New South Wales, Australia is revised on the basis of the holotype and three other specimens. It is selected as the type species of the new monotypic genus Bifidomeria (Family Roemeriidae), which differs from Roemeria in its strictly cerioid corallum, its bifid septal spines and aspects of its microstructure. Study of the detailed microstructure of two other tabulate corals from the Devonian of New South Wales has led to the following revised generic assignments: Michelinia progenitor Chapman, 1921, previously assigned to Roemeripora, is assigned to Roemeria, and Holacanthopora clarkei Wright & Flory, 1980 is assigned to Michelinia.
WEYER D. 2018. Famennian Corals from Morocco: 2. Actinotheca Frech, 1889 (Tabulata). Paläontologie, Stratigraphie, Fazies 24 - Freiberger Forschungshefte C553: 15-50.
[keywords: Tabulata corals, Trachypsammiida, Conodonta, late Famennian, Early Carboniferous, Anti-Atlas Morocco, Harz Mountains, Rhenish Massif, Thuringian Mountains, Franconian Mountains, Sudetes Mountains, Ural]
The nearly forgotten Tabulata genus Actinotheca is described for the first time from southeastern Morocco (Tafilalt Platform, Anti-Atlas). Actinotheca tenuicostata (Münster, 1839) occurs in the Gonioclymenia Limestone (cephalopod facies) of the late Famennian. The conodont age is Bispathodus costatus Zone and perhaps Bispathodus ultimus ultimus Zone. This boundary interval - not yet precisely defined - between the Clymenia "Stage" and the Wocklumeria "Stage" yields a fauna with Bispathodus ultimus bartzschi Kononova & Weyer, 2013, recently discovered in Germany (Thuringian Mountains), and now duplicated in Morocco. The ahermatypic coral species is already known in Europe and western Asia; such late-latest Famennian specimens from Germany, Poland, and Russia are illustrated. Pseudamplexus granulatus Rozkowska, 1969 (Poland, misinterpreted as a Rugosa) and Liratella miranda Chudinova, 2001 (Kazakhstan) are junior synonyms of Actinotheca tenuicostata. The genus Liratella Chudinova, 2001 is unnecessary, being absolutely identical with Actinotheca; and it is invalid, being preoccupied by Liratella Girault, 1913 (a recent Hymenoptera). Actinotheca survived the global Hangenberg Event at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. The type species Actinotheca parallela Frech, 1889 (Erdbach Limestone III, Rhenish Massif) becomes a synonym of Actinotheca siemensi (Frech, 1885) from the Harz Mountains (erroneously described as Frasnian, but according to new topotypes in reality from Viséan neptunian dykes within Frasnian Iberg Limestone); both are now dated as early-middle Viséan: Scaliognathus anchoralis - Gnathodus bilineatus Interregnum (Pseudognathodus homopunctatus Zone = Gnathodus texanus Zone). There is only a third record of equal age from England (Lancashire). For the moment, Actinotheca Frech, 1889 is nearest and obviously closely related to Trachypsammia Gerth, 1921 (Middle Permian) - in spite of the total absence of any such coral in Late Carboniferous and Early Permian times - and belongs to the family Palaeacidae Roemer, 1883 (with synonym Trachypsammiidae Gerth, 1921), which is classified within the superorder Tabulata as only member of the problematical order Trachypsammiida Montanaro-Gallitelli, 1955. Perhaps these taxa are not Zoantharia Blainville, 1830, but Alcyonaria Dana, 1846 (Octocorallia Haeckel, 1866).

back to top

Rugosa - March 2019

FEDOROWSKI J. 2019. Bashkirian Rugosa (Anthozoa) from the Donets Basin (Ukraine). Part 7. The Family Neokoninckophyllidae Fomichev, 1953, with a preliminary revision of Moscovian taxa. Acta Geologica Polonica 69; 33pp.
[keywords: Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian); Neokoninckophyllidae; Emendation; Phylogeny; Palaeogeographic implications]
The Family Neokoninckophyllidae and its type genus Neokoninckophyllum Fomichev, 1939 (type species: N. tanaicum Fomichev, 1939) are discussed and emended. In addition, the genera Orygmophyllum Fomichev, 1953 and Yuanophylloides Fomichev, 1953, originally included in the Families Campophyllidae Wedekind, 1922 and Lophophyllidae Grabau, 1928, respectively, are emended as well and transferred to the Neokoninckophyllidae. Two early Bashkirian species, viz. Yuanophylloides rectus (Vassilyuk in Aizenverg et al., 1983) and Y. inauditus (Moore and Jeffords, 1945), and the Moscovian Neokoninckophyllum sp. nov. are described on the basis of new collections from the Donets Basin. Neokoninckophyllum tanaicum, Yuanophylloides gorskyi Fomichev, 1953 (both Moscovian in age) and Y. cruciformis Fomichev, 1953 (latest Bashkirian), are redescribed on the basis of peels taken from Fomichev's (1953) type specimens. Derivation of the Family Neokoninckophyllidae from the Subfamily Dibunophyllinae Wang, 1950 is postulated and phylogenetic links within the former are hinted at. The occurrence of Yuanophylloides inauditus in both the Donets Basin and the Western Interior Province of North America points to marine communication between those areas during the Bashkirian. The slightly earlier appearance of the oldest neokoninckophyllids in the Donets Basin, in comparison to North America (i.e., R1 vs R2 ammonoid biozones), documents the common roots and monophyletic development of the Neokoninckophyllidae in both areas.
LIAO Wei-hua, LIANG Kun 2019. Givetian (Devonian) rugose corals from Wangyou, Huishi, Guizhou (1). Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 58, 1: 11-22.
[keywords: Late Middle Devonian; Wenglai Formation; rugose corals; Wangyou of Huishi; Guizhou Province]
The present study describes 7 species of 6 genera of rugose corals from the lower part of the Wenglai Formation: Grypophyllum wangyouense (Li in Kong and Huang), Grypophyllum cf. primum Wedekind, Cyathophyllum wenglaiense sp. nov., Sinodisphyllum litvinovitshae (Soshkina), Temnophyllum majus Walther, Argutastrea quadrigemina (Goldfuss), and Ceratophyllum simplex sp. nov. The corals from the upper part of the Wenglai Formation will be addressed in future works. [systematical part of an extensive English summary]
BERKOWSKI B. 2018. New genus and species Wendticyathus nudus (Rugosa) and a short review of Emsian rugose corals from Hamar Laghdad, Morocco. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen 290: 000-000 DOI: 10.1127/njgpa/2018/0770 (October 2018)
Five types of assemblages composed of small, mostly undissepimented, deep-water Rugosa corals are known from the Emsian deposits of the Hamar Laghdad area (Morocco). The mud-mounds of Hamar Laghdad offered extraordinary environments for the development of rugose coral faunas. Some were connected with restricted venting and/or cryptic environments, but the elevated mudmounds themselves also acted as isolated "oases". These mounds provided favourable environmental conditions for coral colonization in an otherwise hostile, deeper environments, unfavourable even for a tolerant Cyathaxonia fauna. In the present paper, a peculiar rugose solitary coral with wall-free apex, Wendticyathus nudus n. gen. n. sp., is described.
BERKOWSKI B., ZAPALSKI M. K. 2018. Large dwellers of the Silurian Halysites biostrome: rhizosessile life strategies of cystiphyllid rugose corals from the Llandovery of Gotland. Lethaia, https://doi.org/10.1111/let.12279.
[keywords: Cystiphyllid Rugosa, Gotland, Halysites biostrome, life strategies, rhizoid structures, Silurian]
An exceptionally well-preserved, unusual biostrome composed of the framebuilding cateniform tabulate coral Halysites catenularius (Linnaeus, 1767) bears an assemblage of the relatively large solitary cystiphyllid rugosan Cystiphyllum visbyense Wedekind, 1927. The corallites of solitary cystiphyllids are embedded within the ranks of the halysitid colonies, which developed on a soft, muddy substrate and in relatively turbid water. The cystiphyllid larvae successively settled mostly on the ranks of halysitid colonies and on colonies of the tiny phaceloid rugose coral Nanophyllum ramosum Johannessen, 1995, whereas calice-in-calice recruitment was not successful for these cystiphyllid corals. Further growth of C. visbyense was supported by rhizoid structures, which were most frequently developed on the cardinal (convex) side of the corallite. The process of formation of the rhizoid structures is here discussed and explained in detail, showing that they were formed by the extension of the basal ectodermal tissue of the polyp. The cystiphyllids, which settled on the walls of living corallites of halysitid colonies, used sweeper tentacles to kill the smaller polyps of the colony to maintain the space around them and expand. Hence, they ultimately used the halysitid colonies only as a hard substrate to stabilize their position on the soft muddy sediment.
FEDOROWSKI J. 2017. Early Bashkirian Rugosa (Anthozoa) from the Donets Basin (Ukraine). Part 6. The Family Aulophyllidae Dybowski, 1873. Acta Geologica Polonica 67, 4: 459-514.
[keywords: Donets Basin; Rugosa (Aulophyllidae); Bashkirian; Taxonomy; Phylogeny; Relationships]
Seven genera (one new), belonging to four subfamilies, seven named species (six new), four species left in open nomenclature and two specimens included in this paper as unnamed Aulophyllidae are described from strata ranging from the lowermost Bashkirian Limestone D5\10 to the lower Bashkirian Limestone F1. A new genus: Voragoaxum and six new species: Dibunophyllum medium, Dibunophylloides columnatus, D. paulus, D. similis, Voragoaxum cavum and Rozkowskia lenta are introduced. Comparison of the ontogeny of the earliest Bashkirian species of Nina Fedorowski, 2017a and Dibunophylloides Fomichev, 1953 suggest the derivation by descends of the Family Bothrophyllidae from the Subfamily Dibunophyllinae. This means the absence of true bothrophylla in the Mississippian strata of the Western European Province and, perhaps, in the contemporaneous strata of other areas as well. [corrected note for FC&P40: 43]
FEDOROWSKI J. 2017. The Tournaisian and Viséan Lophophyllum of Gorskiy (1932) from the Kirghiz Steppe and a possible ancestor of the Bashkirian new genus from the Donets Basin (Ukraine). Geologos 23, 3: 215-221.
[keywords: Kyrgyzstan, "Lophohyllum", Rugosa, Lower Carboniferous, revision]
All specimens assigned by Gorskiy (1932) to the genus Lophophyllum Milne Edwards and Haime, 1850 are revised, redescribed and reillustrated. The corallite identified by him as a second, specifically indeterminate species of Lophophyllum sp. is here questionably included in Amygdalophyllum Dun and Benson, 1920. For the remining specimens two new, unnamed genera are suggested. "Lophophyllum" subtortuosum Gorskiy, 1932 belongs to a new non-dissepimented genus of an unknown family. A possible relationship of Gen. nov. 1, sp. nov. 1 and the new Bashkirian genus from the Donets Basin (Ukraine) is proposed.
KOSSOVAYA O. L., WEYER D. 2018. Lopingian corals from the Omolon Massif (Eastern Siberia), the northernmost Permian boreal Rugosa community. Neues Jahrbuch f. Paläontologie Abhandlungen 287/2: 167-194.
[keywords: Rugosa, Late Permian, Omolon Massif, Svalbard]
The unique large-sized solitary Rugosa of the upper Khivachian Stage in the Omolon terrane are a Late Permian psychrosphaeric fauna, originally situated in the North of Pangea in northeastern marginal basins of Angarida (boreal realm at latitude of 70°N). Faunistic relations are only indicated by the predominating species Sochkineophyllum zavodovskyi Sokolov, 1959, which is redescribed and removed to the recently introduced monotypic neighbouring genus Fedorowskites Chwieduk, 2013 from the Svalbard Archipelago (north of Lopingian Pangea at 45-50°N). Its type species Fedorowskites spitsbergensis Chwieduk, 2013 (Wordian-Capitanian) and Sochkineophyllum turgidiseptatum (Tidten, 1972) (Roadian-Capitanian) are illustrated by new Svalbard collections. Fedorowskites survived at the late-Capitanian global Kamura-Event. The poor present knowledge about further northern Lopingian corals includes only Greenland and the European Zechstein-Basin, but there is no one species in common with the Omolon Massif. A new morphological term lacunula interseptalis is proposed for nearly forgotten skeletal elements, already described by Ludwig (1865) and Kunth (1869).
LIAO Wei-Hua, MA Xue-Ping 2018. Devonian corals from Zhaotong, NE Yunnan (3) - Early Frasnian rugose corals. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 57, 1.
A relatively complete and thick lower through upper Devonian shallow marine sequence crops out in the vicinity of Qingmen Village in the suburb of Zhaotong, NE Yunnan Province, which yields abundant shallow water benthic fossils. The Qingmen section (including Fangyangchong) has become a reference Devonian section in the NE Yunnan due to its well established stratigraphic succession. Nevertheless, rugose corals have not been described until recently. The present paper is the third of the series of rugose corals studies, dealing with early Frasnian strata and rugose corals, with discussions on lithostratigraphy, correlation of coral faunas and their palaeobiogeography. The Upper Devonian sequence at Qingmen (Fangyangchong) is lithologically consistent with the Zaige Formation. This formation is mainly composed of dolomitic limestones and bears very few fossils. So that its geological age is not readily determined. Hence, the description and illustration of the rugose coral fauna from the base of the Zaige Formation of Qingmen (Fangyangchong) is of some importance. This fauna is composed of five genera and seven species, including Sinodisphyllum simplex, S. variabile, Disphyllum catenatum, Hexagonaria magna, H. davidsoni, Temnophyllum poshiense and Truncicarinulum temeniophylloides. These rugose corals overall suggest an early Frasnian age and a close biogeographic relationship between South China and western Canada.

back to top

Scleractinia - March 2019

FLOREZ P., ZAPATA-RAMIREZ P., KLAUS J. S. 2019. Early Miocene shallow-water corals from La Guajira, Colombia: part I, AcroporidaeMontastraeidae. Journal of Paleontology 93, 1: 1-24; https://doi.org/10.1017/jpa.2018.45; published online: 02 October 2018.
We document for the first time Miocene corals from the Siamana and Jimol formations of the Cocinetas Basin in La Guajira Peninsula, northern Colombia. This is the first of two contributions dedicated to the description and detailed illustration of morphospecies collected during two scientific expeditions (2011, 2014) to the remote region. Here we report coral morphospecies attributed to the families Acroporidae, Agathiphylliidae, Astrocoeniidae, Caryophylliidae, Diploastraeidae, Merulinidae, and Montastraeidae. Eighteen species belonging to these seven families, included in nine genera, are described. Fifteen species are assigned to established taxa, while three remain in open nomenclature. Of the species identified, only Montastraea cavernosa (Linnaeus, 1767) exists today. The coral taxa described are typical of the Oligocene-Miocene transition and were important components of shallow-water reefs in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico region during this period. The occurrence of Agathiphyllia spp., Antiguastrea, and Diploastrea spp. confirms the presence of these genera in the Miocene of the Southern Caribbean. Coral assemblages suggest that the La Guajira coral community thrived in calm and shallow waters.
GORKA M. 2018. Late Badenian zooxanthellate corals of the Medobory Hills (western Ukraine) and their environmental significance. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 88, 3: 243-256.
[issue number and pagination supplements former note - see FC&P42: 64 - reported as in press]

ZAMAN S., LATHUILIERE B. 2018. Case 3771 - Stylina Lamarck, 1816 (Coelenterata, Scleractinia): proposed conservation of usage by designation of Stylina insignis Fromentel, 1861 as type species and lectotype designation for it. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 75 (31 December 2018) ISSN 2057-0570 (online).
[keywords: Nomenclature; taxonomy; Coelenterata; Scleractinia; Stylinina; Stylinidae; Stylina; Stylina echinulata; Stylina insignis; Jurassic, Cretaceous; corals]
The purpose of this application under Article 81 of the Code is to conserve the name Stylina Lamarck, 1816 in its accustomed usage by designating a new type species Stylina insignis Fromentel, 1861 and to designate a lectotype. Stylina Lamarck, 1816 is a Mesozoic genus distributed worldwide that contains hundreds of species names. The genus is the nominate taxon of the Stylinidae and even the basis for the suborder Stylinina, but the type species Stylina echinulata Lamarck, 1816 cannot be identified.
BARON-SZABO R. C. 2018. Scleractinian corals from the upper Berriasian of central Europe and comparison with contemporaneous coral assemblages. Zootaxa 4383, 1: 1-98.
Scleractinian coral faunas from the upper Berriasian part of the Oehrli Formation of western Austria (Vorarlberg) and eastern Switzerland (Canton of Appenzell) are taxonomically described for the first time. Furthermore, scleractinian corals of the upper Berriasian part of the Oehrli Formation of the Swiss Cantons of Nidwalden and Uri are revised based on the study of type material. Lectotypes are designated for the species Dimorphocoeniopsis alpina (Koby, 1896) and Pleurophyllia tobleri (Koby, 1896). Sixty-one species belonging to 43 genera and 18 families were identified, making the coral fauna of the upper Oehrli Formation by far the most diverse among the Berriasian assemblages: Actinastrea pseudominima (Koby), A. sp., Adelocoenia bulgarica (Toula) (new combination), A. hexaphyllia (d'Orbigny) (new combination), A. radisensis (d'Orbigny) (new combination), Allocoeniopsis luciensis (d'Orbigny), Amphiaulastrea sp., Astraeofungia cf. decipiens (Michelin), Cladophyllia conybearei Milne Edwards & Haime, Columnocoenia ksiazkiewiczi Morycowa, Comoseris jireceki Toula, Complexastrea seriata Turnsek, C. lobata Geyer, Cycloria mariscali (Felix) (new combination), Dermosmilia capitata (Koby), D. simplex Koby, Dimorphastrea excavata d'Orbigny, D. explanata De Fromentel, Dimorphocoeniopsis alpina (Koby), Ellipsocoenia lorioli (Koby), Enallhelia compressa (Münster), E. rathieri d'Orbigny, Epistreptophyllum cf. densum Roniewicz, Fungiastraea moeschi (Koby), Heliocoenia corallina Koby, H. humberti Étallon, H. minima Sikharulidze, Heterocoenia cf. inflexa (Eichwald), Latiphyllia neocomiensis De Fromentel, Latiastrea mucronata Sikharulidze, Latomeandra sp., Meandrastrea rudis (De Fromentel) (new combination), M. cf. lamberti (Bataller), Meandrophyllia corrugata (Michelin), Microsolena major (Ferry), M. cf. subexcavata Eguchi, Mitrodendron cf. modicum Eliásová, Mixastraea polyseptata Morycowa, Montlivaltia arcuata Beauvais, M. kaufmanni Koby, M. truncata (Defrance, 1817), Myriophyllia cf. propria Sikharulidze, Paraclausastrea vorarlbergensis Baron-Szabo, Peplosmilia stutzi (Koby), Placocoenia heimi (Koby) (new combination), Placophyllia dianthus (Goldfuss), Plesiomontlivaltia paucisepta (Koby) (new combination), Pleurophyllia schmidti (Koby) (new combination), P. tobleri (Koby), Polyphylloseris icaunensis (d'Orbigny, 1850), Rhipidogyra cf. minima Koby, Stylangia cf. laddi Wells, Stylina pleionantha Meneghini, S. decipiens Étallon, S. cf. sparsa Trautschold, Stylosmilia alpina Koby, S. yabei Eguchi, Thecosmilia dichotoma (Koby), Th. sp., Trigerastraea gourdani (De Fromentel), and Vallimeandra cf. explanata (De Fromentel). Furthermore, five additional Berriasian coral faunas are reviewed and compared with the coral fauna of the upper Oehrli Formation. These five assemblages are from southern Ukraine (2 assemblages, consisting of five and 12 species, respectively), northern Tunisia (13 species), southern Spain (23 species), and central Tibet (11 species). Except for the faunas from central Tibet and northern Tunisia, the Berriasian coral assemblages are distinctly dominated by colonial species (70-95%); they represent largely isolated populations of mostly endemic species, and consist largely of genera that had already appeared in the Upper Jurassic (80-100%). On the species-level, however, with the exception of the coral assemblage of Spain, the Berriasian coral faunas are dominated by or completely consist of taxa that have their first occurrence in the Berriasian (54-100%). The Berriasian fauna of the upper Oehrli Formation described in this work contains nearly three times more species than found in the contemporaneous fauna of southern Spain which up to now was the largest known Berriasian fauna. Two of the upper Berriasian taxa described in the current work (Cycloria and Placocoenia) may be the first representatives of lineages that still occur today (Mussidae and Montastraeidae, respectively) as suggested by a recent study of the cox1 intron in modern corals. [original abstract; Baron-Szabo]
BARON-SZABO R. C. 2018. Scleractinian corals from the upper Aptian-Albian of the Garschella Formation of central Europe (western Austria; eastern Switzerland): The Albian. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt Wien 157, 1-4: 241-260. (for 2017)
For the first time, scleractinian corals are taxonomically described from Albian sediments of the Garschella Formation (lower Aptian-lower Cenomanian) of western Austria (Vorarlberg) and eastern Switzerland (Canton of Appenzell). Fifteen species belonging to eleven genera from seven families were determined: Calamophylliopsis compressa (d'Orbigny), C. cf. cervina (Étallon), Cladocora cf. brevis Seguenza, Podoseris elongata Duncan, P. mammiliformis Duncan, P. sp., Synhelia gibbosa (Münster, in Goldfuss), Enallhelia cf. tubulosa Becker, Enallhelia sp., Caryophyllia konincki (Milne Edwards & Haime), Stylocyathus cf. dentalinus d'Orbigny, Trochocyathus antsiranensis Collignon, Bathycyathus laevigatus (Milne Edwards & Haime), Fungiastraea cotteaui (De Fromentel), and Stephanophyllia plattenwaldensis n. sp. The coral fauna of the Garschella Formation is composed nearly equally of solitary (eight species belonging to six genera) and colonial forms (seven species belonging to five genera). With regard to the colonial corals, with the exception of one thamnasterioid (-submeandroid) species, only branching forms were found. Among the solitary corals cupolate, patellate, and conical growth types were present. [original abstract; Baron-Szabo]
LÖSER H., STEUBER T., LÖSER C. 2018. Early Cenomanian coral faunas from Nea Nikopoli (Kozani, Greece; Cretaceous). Carnets de Geologie 18, 3: 23-121; Madrid; published online in final form (pdf) on April 1, 2018; DOI 10.4267/2042/66094
[keywoords: Corals; Greece; Cretaceous; Scleractinia; taxonomy; new taxa]
A Lower Cenomanian marine succession rich in corals is reported from the western margin of the Pelagonian zone in central Greece. The succession starts with a coarse conglomerate followed by sandstone, nodular limestone and massive limestone. Fifteen levels contain corals with the nodular limestone being the most species-rich. As a total, 78 species in 46 genera are described. They belong to 15 superfamilies. Three genera and four species are described as new. The new genera belong to the families Heterocoeniidae and Felixaraeidae, and the informal Plesiosmiliids. The record of six genera results in stratigraphical range extensions. The coral associations show more relationships to Lower than to Upper Cretaceous faunas. Thirty-nine genera already existed before the Cenomanian and 33 genera continued into the Middle Cenomanian, but only 19 genera persisted into the Turonian. The coral fauna has close palaeobiogeographic relationships with mainly Boreal or North Tethyan Cenomanian faunas such as those of the Aquitanian Basin, the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, or with faunas from the northern margin of the Rhenish Massif, but shares also species with the Upper Aptian to Lower Albian of the Bisbee Basin in North America and with faunas of the Lower to Middle Albian of the Northern Pyrenees. [original abstract; Baron-Szabo]
[New taxa: * Kozaniastrea gen. nov. (monotypic; family Lamellofungiidae Alloiteau), type species K. pachysepta sp. n.; cerioid colony with very thick compact septa in a subregular hexameral symmetry - without columella, pali and synapticulae - endotheca well developed - wall septothecal - budding intracalicinal, septal; ** Styloheterocoenia gen. nov. (family Heterocoeniidae Oppenheim), type species S. hellenensis sp. n. (included is also S. brunni sp. n.); a member of the family Heterocoeniidae with external pali (costal pali sensu Löser 2016) originating from the costae - septa thick, compact, in a regular septal symmetry in various systems (trimeral, tetrameral, hexameral), finely ornamented at their lateral faces - wall subcompact, septothecal - endotheca well developed - columella and synapticulae absent; *** Plesiolites gen. nov. (monotypic; Plesiosmiliids, informal group), type species P. winnii sp. n.; cyclolitid coral with compact septa, in a regular symmetry and a large lamellar columella]
MORYCOWA E. 2018. Supplemental data on Triassic (Anisian) corals from Upper Silesia (Poland). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 88, 1: 37-45.
[keywords: Scleractinia, taxonomy, Peri-Tethyan basin, Middle Triassic, Upper Silesia, southern Poland]
About twenty species of scleractinian corals are known from the shallow marine epicontinental deposits (Middle Triassic: Anisian, Muschelkalk) of Kraków-Upper Silesia region. Four of them require taxonomic revision. On the basis of partly preserved micromorphological features and the microstructure of the skeletons two of them are corrected, i.e. Coelocoenia? assmanni Weissermel, 1925 and C. exporrecta Weissermel, 1925, from Kamien Slaski, near Opole (Upper Silesia). Coelocoenia? assmanni was incorporated into Eckastraea prisca (Weissermel, 1925), family Eckastraeidae Morycowa, 2006, in Morycowa and Szulc (2006) and C. exporrecta is assigned to a new genus Opolestraea nov. gen., family Eckastraeidae.
MORYCOWA E., RONIEWICZ E. 2016. Microstructural evidence of the stylophyllid affinity of the genus Cyathophora (Scleractinia, Mesozoic). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 86: 1-16 / doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14241/asgp.2015.023
[keywords: Microstructure, homeomorphy, taxonomy, Cyathophoridae, Stylinidae, Stylophyllidae, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous]
The genus Cyathophora Michelin, 1843 (Cyathophoridae) is removed from the suborder Stylinina Alloiteau, 1952 and transferred to the Stylophyllina Beauvais, 1980. Morphologically, it differs from stylinine corals in that rudimentary septa are developed in the form of ridges or spines on the wall and may continue onto the endothecal elements as amplexoid septa. Relics of primary aragonite microstructure, preserved in silicified colonies of Cyathophora steinmanni Fritzsche, 1924 (Barremian-early Aptian) and in a calcified colony of C. richardi Michelin, 1843 (middle Oxfordian), indicate a non-trabecular structure of their skeletons. The sclerenchyme of radial elements is differentiated into fascicles of fibres, and in the form of fascicles or a non-differentiated layer of fibres, it continues as the upper part of endothecal elements and as the incremental layers of the wall. A micro-lamellation of the skeleton corresponds to the accretionary mode of skeleton growth found in Recent corals. A similarity between the septal microstructure of Cyathophora and that of the stylophyllid genera, the Triassic Anthostylis Roniewicz, 1989 and the Triassic-Early Jurassic Stylophyllopsis Frech, 1890, is interpreted as a result of their being phylogenetically related. The microstructure of the Jurassic Stylina gaulardi Michelin, 1843 has been considered for purposes of comparison. The systematics of the genus Cyathophora is formally revised with C. richardi Michelin reinstated as the type species.
RICCI C., LATHUILIERE B., RUSCIADELLI G. 2018. Coral communities, zonation and paleoecology of an Upper Jurassic reef complex (Ellipsactinia Limestones, central Apennines, Italy). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 124, 3: 433-508.
[keywords: Late Jurassic; Corals; Systematic; Ecology; reef; Apennines]
This work describes and analyzes an original collection of fossil corals from the Ellipsactinia Limestones (Kimmeridgian-Tithonian), exposed in the Marsica area (central Apennines, Italy), focusing on taxonomy and paleoecology. 43 species grouped into 32 genera, 16 families and 9 suborders were identified. Astreoidogyra giadae nov. gen. nov. sp. (Rhipidogyridae) and Clausastrea eliasovae nov. sp. (Montlivaltiidae) are new taxa. Corals occur from the back reef to the reef crest, showing a marked zonation, expressed by a variation of coral cover and type, although the reef front and slope facies could not be sampled. The back reef is characterised by scattered medium-to-small colonies, with a relative high variety of colony shape, corallite arrangement types and high taxonomic diversity. Stylosmilia, Calamophylliopsis, Intersmilia, Pleurophyllia, Bracthelia, Heliocoenia, Ogilvinella occur here among others. The inner reef flat records the highest coral cover, with large robust branching, such as "Pseudocoenia", Heliocoenia, Calamophylliopsis, and large dome-shaped meandroid, such as Psammogyra, Pruvostrastraea, Eugyriopsis) colonies. Within the external reef flat and the reef crest the coral cover is low and the stromatoporoid-bearing mounds dominate on the isolated coral bioconstructions. Controlling factors as bathymetry, hydrodynamic disturbances, abrasive currents, background sedimentation and morphological irregularities of the depositional profile are considered to explain the observed coral zonation. High diversity and low dominance indices are interpreted to result from reef complex heterogeneity, which should have influenced the formation of different ecological niches and consequently the proliferation of a greater number of taxa in a relatively small area.
SENTOKU A., TOKUDA Y., EZAKI Y., WEBB G. E. 2017. Modes of regeneration and adaptation to soft-bottom substrates of the free-living solitary scleractinian Deltocyathoides orientalis. Lethaia 51, 1: 102-111; online since 06 July 2017 / https://doi.org/10.1111/let.12228
[keywords: Azooxanthellate coral - burrowing - fragmentation - predation - regeneration]
Scleractinian corals adapt to various substrate conditions with a variety of growth morphologies and modes of life. The azooxanthellate solitary scleractinian Deltocyathoides orientalis exhibits slightly flattened, bowl-shaped corallites. This study describes in detail the modes of skeletal regeneration after fragmentation in association with exquisitely adaptive strategies of the corals for life on soft substrates. Larger fragments of individuals retaining almost two-thirds to five-sixths of the original skeletal area inherit the densely dilated, lower central skeleton, so as to keep a stable life position on soft substrates and regenerate the lost parts promptly. Even highly fragmented individuals preserving less than 10% of the original skeleton still regenerate and repair. Fragmented individuals with almost one-sixth to one-third original skeleton actively maintain a posture with the oral disc upward using movements of remaining tentacles. Damaged and missing soft tissues are then efficiently regenerated to form a mouth and gastrovascular cavity near the new centre of the corallum. Every regenerated individual reuses skeleton and soft tissues, and is capable of burrowing before the completion of growth morphology. The mode of regeneration characteristic of D. orientalis is thus effective and adaptive for maintenance of a stable life position on soft substrates for this solitary scleractinian. As fragmentation in deeper-water, soft-bottom settings is likely due to predation rather than turbulence, the rapid corallum regeneration and burrowing strategy may both represent adaptive strategies for life on soft substrates and exploitation of new niches, such as an infaunal mode of life, in a predator-rich environment.

back to top

Various cnidarians, sponges, and other fossils - December 2018

CHANG Shan, CLAUSEN S., ZHANG Lei, FENG Qinglai, STEINER M., BOTTJER D. J., ZHANG Yan, SHI Min 2018. New probable cnidarian fossils from the lower Cambrian of the Three Gorges area, South China, and their ecological implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 505, 15 September 2018: 150-166; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.05.039
Lower Cambrian assemblages of phosphatic and chitinous tubular fossils of probable cnidarian affinities were recovered from the Yanjiahe, Shuijingtuo and Shipai formations in the Three Gorges area, South China. Terreneuvian Cambrorhytium cf. C. major co-occur with an unnamed taxon in the Yanjiahe Formation. They can be compared with specimens from the Ediacaran Miaohe Fauna in the Three Gorges area. The most abundant and diversified cnidarian assemblages, including Cambrorhytium gracilis n. sp., Cambrorhytium cf. major, Cambrorhytium minor, Sphenothallus songlinensis, Sphenothallus taijiangensis?, Sphenothallus kozaki, ?Sphenothallus sp., ?Byronia sp., and ?Mackenzia sp. are reported from the overlying, Cambrian Stage 3-4, Shuijingtuo and Shipai formations. These new fossils show previously unknown evidence for cnidarian affinities, such as an attachment disk, clonal clusters and probable budding structures. These diversified assemblages of probable cnidarian fossils further fill major gaps in the Cambrian record of stem metazoans and document associated early evolutionary patterns. In addition, our discovery suggests that along with sponges, these tubular fossils represent another important component of benthic ecosystems that colonized often dysoxic, deep-settings during the Cambrian explosion. The observed increases of average body-size and biomineralization among these probable cnidarians are tentatively linked to oxygenation of deep oceanic settings and appearance of predatory pressure during the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition, respectively.

ENGELKE J., ESSER K. J. K., LINNERT C., MUTTERLOSE J., WILMSEN M. 2016. The benthic macrofauna from the Lower Maastrichtian chalk of Kronsmoor (northern Germany, Saturn quarry): taxonomic outline and palaeoecologic implications. Acta Geologica Polonica 66, 4: 671-694.
[among more than 1000 specimens studied from Kronsmoor the authors describe also sponges: Ventriculites? sp. (text-fig. 8A), three fragments, Porosphaera globularis (Phillips, 1829) (text-fig. 8B), 22 specimens, and corals: Parasmilia excavata (Hagenow, 1839) (text-fig. 8J1, 8J2), 41 specimens, and Parasmilia centralis (Mantell, 1822) (text-fig. 8I1, 8I2), two specimens]

HAN Jian, LI Guo-Xiang, WANG Xing, YANG Xiao-Guang 2018. Olivooides-like tube aperture in early Cambrian carinachitids (Medusozoa, Cnidaria). Journal of Paleontology 92, 1 (special issue 1 - Cambrian explosion): 3-13; https://doi.org/10.1017/jpa.2017.10 / online since 29 June 2017.
The early Cambrian Carinachitidae, a family in the subclass Conulata, are intriguing and important small shelly fossils. Their gently tapering, tube-shaped skeletons consist of convex faces separated from each other by broad, deep corner sulci, and they exhibit triradial, pentaradial, or predominantly tetraradial symmetry. However, the morphology of the aperture and the modes of growth of carinachitid skeletons as well as the anatomy of their soft parts are unknown. Examination of a single new, exceptionally well-preserved specimen of tetramerous Carinachites spinatus Qian, 1977, collected from the lower Cambrian Kuanchuanpu Formation in South China, reveals: (1) that its aperture is connected to a small mass of relic soft tissue and (2) that the apertural end of each of the four faces is developed into a subtriangular lappet or oral lobe that is smoothly folded toward the long axis of the tube, partially closing the tube aperture. Similarities between thorn-like spines on the faces and the oral lobes indicate that the transverse ribs were periodically displaced from the perradial portion of the aperture during formation of new ribs. In addition, the tube walls may have undergone secondary thickening during growth. The growth pattern of the tube and the spatial relationships between the tube aperture and soft parts are analogous to those of co-occurring olivooids. These findings further strengthen the previously proposed hypothesis that coeval carinachitids, olivooids, hexangulaconulariids, and Paleozoic conulariids are closely related taxa within the subphylum Medusozoa. Finally, carinachitids most likely represent an evolutionary intermediate between olivooids and hexangulaconulariids.

HERNANDEZ MORALES H., LÖSER H. 2018. Revision of the family Helioporidae (Coenothecalia, Anthozoa; Cretaceous - Extant). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 287, 3: 351-363.
The octocoral family Helioporidae (order Helioporacea) is revised on the basis of its type genus. The family, well known for the extant 'Blue coral' Heliopora coerulea, encompasses colonial corals whose skeletons are made of large monocentric skeletal elements that form the wall and the coenosteum. Its projections into the corallites form a kind of septa. Along with the extant genus Heliopora Blainville, 1830, the family encompasses the Cretaceous genera Dactylacis Orbigny, 1849, Eomontipora Gregory, 1932, Parapolytremacis Alloiteau, 1957, Polytremacis Orbigny, 1849, Proheliopora Kusmicheva, 1975, Pseudopolytremacis Morycowa, 1971, and Selidolithus Alloiteau, 1957. All genera are reviewed on the basis of type material of their respective type species, as far as possible. The present revision suggests a smaller number of genera for the Cretaceous than previously thought. All genera are considered synonymous with Heliopora, with the exception of Pseudopolytremacis and its junior synonym Proheliopora. Heliopora ranges from the Hauterivian to the present and Pseudopolytremacis from Barremian to Santonian. [original abstract; Löser]

LÖSER H. 2018, in press. Fossile Korallen aus Jura und Kreide. Aufbau, Klassifikation, Bestimmung und Fundmöglichkeiten. 2. Auflage. CPress Verlag, Dresden; VI + 198 pp.
Coral reefs are complex ecosystems. Their main producers - the corals - are more primitive organisms. Nevertheless they create complicated constructed skeletons presenting a wide range of shapes. For half a billion years exist corals, for about 250 million years the stony corals (Scleractinia) which colonize also today oceans. Changing environmental conditions forced the sensible organisms to create again and again new constructions resulting in a almost unlimited richness of forms through time. Not much is known about the relationship between the construction of the skeleton made of calcium carbonate and the biology of the living animal, mainly for groups which lived in periods long ago making classification and taxonomy difficult. This book will be help to work with Mesozoic corals (without Triassic) and gives in five large chapters (morphology; palaeoecology, diversity and evolution; sampling and examination; systematics and list of common genera; coral localities) insight in the most important aspects of a difficult organism group. The book is based on lecture material and is written for geology and biology students, as well for interested amateurs and biologists or geologists who want to gain insight in this invertebrate group. * In the second revised and enlarged edition of the book the systematic part was adapted to the new classification system proposed in 2016. The number of included genera increased and more than the half of the figures in the systematic part was replaced by better illustrations. The Late Cretaceous corals are better represented compared to the first edition. [original summary; Löser]

PEEL J. P. 2017. A problematic cnidarian (Cambroctoconus; Octocorallia?) from the Cambrian (Series 2-3) of Laurentia. Journal of Paleontology 91, 5: 871-882; https://doi.org/10.1017/jpa.2017.49 / online since 09 August 2017.
The problematic calcified cnidarian Cambroctoconus is described from the Henson Gletscher Formation (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4 - Series 3, Stage 5) of North Greenland, representing the first record from Laurentia of a genus otherwise recently described from China, Kyrgyzstan, and Korea. Internal molds produced by penetrative phosphatization mirror the pervasive pore system of the calice walls and septa. The pore system is compared to the network of gastrodermal solenia that distributes nutrients between polyps and surrounding stolon tissues in present day octocorals. In conjunction with the octagonal form of the individual coralla and eight-fold symmetry of septa, the pore system promotes assignment of Cambroctoconus to the Octocorallia, a basal clade in cnidarian phylogeny. Octocorals ('soft corals') are diverse in present day seas, but have a poor fossil record despite the general development of distinctive calcareous spicules. [new taxa: Order Cambroctoconida new; Cambroctoconus koori new species]

SHAO Tie-Quan, TANG Han-Hua, LIU Yun-Huan, WALOSZEK D. 2018. Diversity of cnidarians and cycloneuralians in the Fortunian (early Cambrian) Kuanchuanpu Formation at Zhangjiagou, South China. Journal of Paleontology 92, 2: 115-129; https://doi.org/10.1017/jpa.2017.94 / online since 15 February 2018.
The latest discovery of microfossils from the lower Cambrian (Fortunian Stage) Zhangjiagou lagerstätte in South China are presented. This lagerstätte is rich in exceptionally preserved microfossils, including embryos of Olivooides multisulcatus, Olivooides mirabilis, and Pseudooides prima; hatched stages of O. multisulcatus, O. mirabilis, Hexaconularia sichuanensis, and Quadrapyrgites quadratacris; and cycloneuralians represented by Eopriapulites sphinx. The largest known fragment of O. mirabilis implies that its adult length can be more than 9.0 mm with at least 50 annuli, and the longest known specimen of Q. quadratacris has at least 18 annuli. These unusually large specimens refute the non-feeding larvae hypothesis for Olivooides and Quadrapyrgites. * Based on the current material, it is inferred that (1) early cnidarians have a high diversity in the Fortunian Stage; (2) P. prima might represent the embryonic stages of H. sichuanensis; (3) adults of Olivooides and Quadrapyrgites may have reached centimeter-scale dimensions with more than 50 annuli; (4) Olivooides and Quadrapyrgites may be better interpreted as coronate scyphozoans; (5) cycloneuralians also had a high diversity in the Zhangjiagou lagerstätte; and (6) cycloneuralians might have originally been part of the early Cambrian meiofauna rather than belonging to the macrobenthos. Such ancestral cycloneuralians might have been Eopriapulites-like, possessing pentaradially symmetric, backward pointing, and internally hollow introvert scalids used as locomotory devices.

WEYER D. 2016. Solitary and/or colonial growth in the Palaeozoic superorder Heterocorallia Schindewolf, 1941 (Eifelian-Serpukhovian). Paläontologie, Stratigraphie, Fazies 23, Freiberger Forschungshefte C550: 59-101. [listed in FC&P41, p. 120, here supplemented by keywords and an abstract]
The slowly growing evidence for colonial habit in the Palaeozoic Heterocorallia is supported by the first record of nearly complete colonies, found in the Upper Famennian of Morocco (Anti-Atlas, Tafilalt). Rich collections of Oligophylloides Rozkowska, 1969 allow the proposal of Oligophylloides maroccanus sp. nov., found in cephalopod limestones, where a thicket of about six colonies was observed (length 2.30 m, height 0.3-0.4 m, planar dendroid growth). The sessile benthonic genus lived rarely solitary, mostly colonial within one species population. These corals constructed a special type of colonies, starting with several (observed up to 16) protocorallites, which united their tissue without any genetic barrier. The new term paracolony is introduced for such coral colonies, which are also known among Rugosa, as demonstrated by the Lower Silurian Schlotheimophyllum patellatum (Schlotheim, 1820) from Gotland Island, Sweden. Obviously also the typical VisÚan-Serpukhovian heterocorallian genera Hexaphyllia Stuckenberg, 1904 and Heterophyllia McCoy, 1849 were both colonial and solitary, as indicated by their locally sediment-filling rich assemblages, already recorded in the literature. The worldwide usual, always strongly fragmented preservation could be caused by fish-like predators, feeding (perhaps similar to some recent parrot fishes) the unprotected soft parts, which covered greater parts of the distal Heterocorallia skeleton.

ZHANG Hu, LIU Yun-Huan, QIN Jia-Chen, ZHANG Ya-Nan, SHAO Tie-Quan, ZHANG Ting, WEI Rong-Hao, WANG Feng, ZHANG Hong-Ze, LUO Lei, YIN Chun-Tao 2017. New materials of Early Cambrian microfossils Hexaconularia sichuanensis from Zhangzhiagou section in southern Shaanxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 56, 4.
A large number of protoconulariid fossils were found in the lower Cambrian strata of Zhangjiagou Section in Xixiang, South Shaanxi. According to its overall morphological and the classification of protoconulariid fossils which belong to Hexaconularia. Predecessors made many classifications about Hexaconularia, but we reclassified it. There are two shallow and discontinuous corner grooves at the central face. This not only enriches the intraspecific characteristics, but also provides the basis for the evolution trend of shell. The same type as fossils described in this article have been reported by predecessors but from different places, thus it has important research meaning to the stratigraphic comparison.

ZHANG Ya-Nan, LIU Yun-Huan, QIN Jia-Chen, ZHANG Hu, SHAO Tie-Quan, ZHANG Ting, WANG Feng, WEI Rong-Hao, LUO Lei, ZHANG Hong-Ze, YIN Chun-Tao 2017. New materials of Early Cambrian microfossils Olivooides multisulcatus from Zhangzhiagou section in southern Shaanxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 56, 4.
Many fossils of Lagerstätte is found from the Kuanchuanpu Formation of lower Cambrian in Zhangjiagou section, Xixiang, Shaanxi Province. The precious three-dimensionally phosphatized specimens have important research meaning for the origin and evolution of early life. And it is the basis for biostratigraphic comparison at the pre-trilobites-era of early Cambrian. This paper mainly describes Lagerstätte and soft-bodied Olivooides multisulcatus Qian, 1977. This type of fossil was first reported in Kuanchuanpu Biota in Ningqiang, Shaanxi in 1977, which is the same type as fossils described in this article but from different places, thus it has important research meaning to the stratigraphic correlation. According to new discoveries in Xixiang Biota, this paper compares and adds the characteristics and intraspecific variation of Olivooides multisulcatus Qian, 1977.

back to top

Reefs - March 2019

BRAGA J. C., PUGA-BERNABEU A., HEINDEL K., PATTERSON M. A., BIRGEL D., PECKMANN J., SANCHEZ-ALMAZO, WEBSTER J. M., YOKOYAMA Y., RIDING R. 2019. Microbialites in Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (IODP Expedition 325, NE Australia). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 514, 15: 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.10.007
[keywords: Carbonate fabrics; Biomarkers; Isotopes; Bacterial sulfate reduction; Paleoenvironments; Late Pleistocene]
[highlights]: * microbialite is a main component in LGM and deglacial reefs in NE Australian shelf; ** microbialite was mediated by bacterial sulfate reduction in anoxic micro-environments; *** microbialite-coated debris is common in fore-reef bioclastic accumulations; **** fore-reef microbialite formed in the photic zone in shallow water depths; ***** LGM and deglacial microbialites may reflect elevated seawater carbonate saturation.

BRAME H.-M. R., MARTINDALE R. C., ETTINGER N. P., DEBELJAK I., VASSEUR R., LATHUILIERE B., KABIRI L., BODIN S. 2019. Stratigraphic distribution and paleoecological significance of Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian-Toarcian) lithiotid-coral reefal deposits from the Central High Atlas of Morocco. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 514 (2019): 813-837; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.09.001; available online since 03 September 2018.
[paper highlights] * analysis of lithiotid-coral biostrome structure, taxonomic composition, and ecology; ** coral turnover but no lithiotid extinction at Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary; *** lithiotids remain prolific reef builders in the early Toarcian (before OAE [oceanic anoxia event]) **** only Lithioperna and Cochlearites lithiotids identified (i.e., no Lithiotis); ***** refined depositional models for lithiotid-coral ecosystems

CORDIE D. R., DORNBOS S. Q., MARENCO P. J. 2019. Increase in carbonate contribution from framework-building metazoans through Early Cambrian reefs of the Western Basin and Range, USA. Palaios 34, 3: 159-174; https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2018.085
During the early Cambrian, organisms with robust skeletons began to integrate with microbialite reef structures. Specifically, archaeocyathan sponges were among the first metazoan reef-builders. Here we investigate the transition from microbial-dominated reef environments to metazoan-based reefs from strata in the western Basin and Range of California and Nevada. This study integrates point count data from petrographic thin sections with stable carbon isotopic and elemental composition of carbonates. From the earliest reef bearing formations to the latest, metazoan framework contribution increases from zero to 29.7%. This increase is linked to the addition of new framework-building organisms, namely coralomorphs, as well as an increase in archaeocyath body size. Correspondingly, Shannon's diversity increases from 0.652 to 1.492. However, skeletal contributions from additional organisms within the reefs (e.g., trilobites, echinoderms) appear unchanged and their diversity is not correlated with framework-builder diversity. A positive carbon isotopic excursion within the Lower Poleta Formation correlates with decreases in the abundances of uranium and molybdenum that suggest a global change in organic carbon burial as opposed to localized or diagenetic factors. This allows for chemostratigraphic correlation to published carbon isotopic data and provides a proposed regional age constraint of roughly 517 million years. Overall, early Cambrian reefs at this location exhibit a pattern of increasing metazoan contribution during the transition from microbial- to metazoan-based reef support, however, diversity remained low until additional organisms evolved to inhabit these ecosystems.

HUANG Xing, ARETZ M., ZHANG Xionghua, DU Yuansheng, LUAN Tengfei 2019. Upper Visean coral biostrome in a volcanic-sedimentary setting from the Eastern Tianshan, Northwest China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology online since 21 April 2018; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.04.014
[keywords: Siphonodendron biostrome; Biostratigraphy; Paleoecology; Mississippian; Northwest China]
[highlights]: * for the first time a late Visean coral biostrome is described from the Eastern Tianshan, NW China; ** the Siphonodendron biostrome at Yamansu is unique for developing in an island arc setting; *** it indicates the expanded distribution of Siphonodendron biostromes into more temperate environments towards the pole; **** climatic improvement, changes in ocean currents and fast growth rate of Siphonodendron enabled the spread of the biostrome.

LI Yang, WU Ya-sheng, JIANG Hong-xia 2018. Taphonomic characteristics of a Permian calcisponge reef in Lichuan, Hubei province and its paleoenvironmental significance. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 2018, 2: 212-227.
[keywords: reef, calcisponge, taphonomy, Archaeolithoporella encrustation, micrite content, Permian, Lichuan]
The calcisponge reefs in Lichuan, western Hubei Province is analyzed for reef-building organism composition, preservation status of calcisponges, size of calcisponges, contents of Archaeolithoporella encrustations and micrites. A total of 17 genera of calcisponges and one genus of hydrozoan are found in the reef-core facies (layers 8-10). The 8th to 9th layers are mainly composed of toppled sponges and have little content of Archaeolithoporella encrustations, while the 10th layer has more contents of erect calcisponges and Archaeolithoporella encrustations. The average diameters of the calcisponges in the 8th to 10th layers increase a little, but the content of micrites gradually declines. Thus we infer that the reef building organisms in the 8th to 9th layers formed under less strong hydrodynamic conditions, and were mostly toppled. For the 10th layer, the hydrodynamic conditions are stronger, but, the Archaeolithoporella encrustations enhanced the anti-wave capability of the reef-building organisms, and they were preserved in erect positions.

BONUSO N., LOYD S., LORENTZ N. J. 2018. Pioneer reef communities within a Middle Triassic (Anisian) to Upper Triassic (Carnian) mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp system from the Star Peak Group, South Canyon, central Nevada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 503, 15 August 2018: 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.03.038
[highlights] * we describe reef-building communities from a Middle to Late Triassic Nevada section ** biostromes and a reef mound characterize the reef structures *** different taxa dominate the successive reef structures **** flooding formed pavements and helped recruit encrusting/epifaunal invertebrates.

HOFFMANN M., KOLODZIEJ B., SKUPIEN P. 2017. Microencruster-microbial framework and synsedimentary cements in the Stramberk Limestone (Carpathians, Czech Republic): Insights into reef zonation. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 87: 325-347 doi: https://doi.org/10.14241/asgp.2017.018
[keywords: Coral reefs, carbonate platforms, microframework, sedimentary breccia, Moravia, Jurassic, Cretaceous]
The Stramberk Limestone (Tithonian-lower Berriasian) was developed on a northerly located, isolated intra-Tethyan carbonate platform. It is composed of various facies that can be observed in olistoliths and blocks embedded in the Cretaceous flysch of the Outer Carpathians in Moravia (Czech Republic). Corals, microbialites, microencrusters and synsedimentary cements contributed on various scales to the reef framework. The importance of corals and some microencrusters to the formation of the Stramberk reef complex is well recognized, while other components received less attention in previous studies. Two end members of boundstone types are described from the Kotouc Quarry, near Stramberk. Boundstone type A is dominated by phaceloid (branching-type) corals, encrusted by microbialites and microencrusters, in particular photophile species ("Lithocodium-Bacinella", Koskinobullina socialis Cherchi et Schroeder, Iberopora bodeuri Granier et Berthou). Boundstone type B is composed of microencrusters, microbialites and synsedimentary isopachous fibrous cements, while corals are absent or subordinate. Microencrusters [Crescentiella morronensis (Crescenti), Labes atramentosa Eliásová, Perturbatacrusta leini Schlagintweit et Gawlick, Radiomura cautica Senowbari-Daryan et Schäfer, thin encrusting calcified sponges] are main biotic components of the microencruster-cement boundstone. Some identified microencrusters are known only or mostly from intra-Tethyan carbonate platforms. Except for C. morronensis, other common microencrusters in the coral-microbial boundstone (type A) are rare in the microencruster-cement boundstone (type B). The depositional setting of boundstone type A corresponds to a low-energy environment of an inner platform. Boundstone type B, until now not recognized in the Stramberk Limestone, was developed in a high-energy, upper fore-reef slope environment. Other important facies in the Kotouc Quarry are reef-derived breccias: matrix-supported breccia and clast-supported breccia with radiaxial-fibrous cement (showing some similarities to Triassic "evinosponges" cement), interpreted as being dominantly synsedimentary (pre-burial). The preliminary studies by the present authors, supported by observations under cathodoluminescence, highlight the significance of synsedimentary cementation for the formation of a boundstone framework (type B) and the stabilization of fore-reef, slope deposits.

HUANG Xing, ARETZ M., ZHANG Xiong-Hua, DU Yuan-Sheng, LUAN Teng-Fei 2018 (in press). Upper Visean coral biostrome in a volcanic-sedimentary setting from the Eastern Tianshan, Northwest China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology in press; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.04.014 (online since 21 April 2018)
[keywords: Siphonodendron biostrome; biostratigraphy; paleoecology, Mississippian; Northwest China]
Highlights: * for the first time a late Visean coral biostrome is described from the Eastern Tianshan, NW China; ** the Siphonodendron biostrome at Yamansu is unique for developing in an island arc setting; *** it indicates the expanded distribution of Siphonodendron biostromes into more temperate environments towards the pole; **** climatic improvement, changes in ocean currents, and fast growth rate of Siphonodendron enabled the spread of the biostrome.

HUANG Yuan-Geng, CHEN Zhong-Qiang, ZHAO Lai-Shi, STANLEY G. D. jr, YAN Jia-Xin, YU Pei, YANG Wan-Rong, HUANG Jun-Hua 2018 (in press). Restoration of reef ecosystems following the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary mass extinction: evidence from the Laibin area, South China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology in press; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.08.027 (online since 19 August 2017)
[keywords: Middle Permian; Late Permian; Wuchiapingian; reef ecologic crisis; reef-building organisms; recovery]
Highlights: * diverse reef dwellers and constructors proliferated in the Tieqiao reef community; ** Tieqiao reef may show the final recovery of reef ecosystems after the GLB crisis; *** moderate temperature changes did not have a strong control on the Tieqiao reef; **** the reef began when ?13C finally stabilized following the GLB crisis; ***** post-extinction restoration of reef ecosystems was associated with sea-level fall.

JAKUBOWICZ M., KROL J., ZAPALSKI M. K., WRZOLEK T., WOLNIEWICZ P., BERKOWSKI B. 2018. At the southern limits of the Devonian reef zone: Palaeoecology of the Aferdou el Mrakib reef (Givetian, eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Gelogical Journal 2018; 29pp; https://doi.org/10.1002/gj.3152
[keywords: coral-stromatoporoid reefs; Gondwana; Mader Basin; Middle Devonian; Morocco; palaeoecology; reef talus]
Devonian reefs of north-western Gondwana represent the southernmost record of shallow-water coral reefs in the Palaeozoic. [...] Critical factors in the facies development and temporal changes in the character of reef building were the palaeobathymetry, dominant sedimentary and circulation regimes, level of wave energy, and, possibly, light availability. Distinctive features of the palaeoecology of Aferdou el Mrakib are the dominance of massive colonies of heliolitid tabulates and a subordinate role of massive stromatoporoids, both explained here primarily as a result of increased water turbidity in the high-latitude sedimentary basin. The growth of the high-latitude coral-stromatoporoid reefs in the south-eastern Rheic Ocean was favoured by a combination of the exceptionally warm climate and plate tectonic configuration typifying the Devonian. Of critical importance appears the palaeogeographic position of the Rheic, which resulted in the seawater circulation in the ocean being dominated by tropical water masses, with restricted inflow of cold water from the circumpolar oceanic circulation. [abridged extensive abstract; an appendix contains a list of numerous stromatoporoids and corals characteristic for various development stages of the Aferdou reef]

KANI T., ISOZAKI Y., HAYASHI R., ZAKHAROV Yu., POPOV A. 2018. Middle Permian (Capitanian) seawater 87Sr/86Sr minimum coincided with disappearance of tropical biota and reef collapse in NE Japan and Primorye (Far East Russia). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 499, 15 June 2018: 13-21; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.03.033
[highlights] * Sr isotope profiles are obtained for the Middle Permian carbonates in Japan and in Primorye, Russia ** the collapse of the reef occurred during the Capitanian minimum *** the reef collapse coincided with the Capitanian global cooling.

KROL J. J., KOLODZIEJ B., BUCUR I. I. 2017. Coral reefs near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in the northern Transylvanian Basin, Romania: Composition and palaeoenvironmental interpretation. Geological Journal 2017; 15pp; https://doi.org/10.1002/gj.2913
[keywords: carbonates; corals; paleoecology; Paleogene; reefs; Romania; Transylvania]
Eocene-Oligocene reefs have been reported in Europe largely from the circum-Mediterranean region. In this paper, small coral reefs from the northwestern Transylvanian Basin (Romania) are described for the first time. They developed near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, most probably during the Priabonian, and belong to northernmost outposts of the reef belt developed during this time in Europe. The studied sedimentary successions in Letca and Babeni-Cuciulat (Salaj County), up to 55m thick, belong to the Cozla Formation. The reefs occur within a shallow-water succession composed mostly of bedded limestones, dominated by bioclastic (coralline) packstones. Low-relief (constratal) reefs, locally up to 10-15m in thickness, are spaced cluster (matrix-supported) reefs. Scleractinian corals are common but poorly diversified (10 species and 8 genera). Branching ramose colonies, branching low-integrated phaceloid, and sheet-like (foliaceous) corals dominate. Neither lateral zonation nor vertical succession of reefs was recognized. Corals co-occur with encrusting and geniculate red algae, but they are of subordinate significance for a nonrigid reef framework. Branching corals baffled or trapped suspended carbonate mud that contributed to the reef growth and ongoing development of topographic relief. Associated fossils are of low to moderate diversity. A relatively low-energy environment, moderate to high sedimentation rate, and increased turbidity are inferred from carbonate muddy and fine-grained matrix, dominance of sediment-resistant corals, their morphology, common occurrence in growth position, as well as low to moderate degree of bioerosion and encrustation. Transylvanian reefs in terms of poor coral diversity, matrix-supported texture, and turbid-water sedimentary setting show similarities with many coeval reefs from the circum-Tethyan area.

MARTINDALE R. C., FOSTER W. J., VELLEDITS F. 2018 (in press). The survival, recovery, and diversification of metazoan reef ecosystems following the end-Permian mass extinction event. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology in press; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.08.014 (online since 7 August 2017)
[keywords: Triassic; paleoecology; reef gap; ocean acidification; platform margin reefs; photosymbiosis; Early Triassic] Highlights: * the end-Permian mass extinction was catastrophic for reef ecosystems; ** both small microbial-metazoan and metazoan reefs characterize the Early Triassic; *** shelf-edge reefs do not become re-established until the Illyrian-Ladinian interval; **** rifting was a key factor in the rise of shelf edges; ***** coral reef proliferation (Late Triassic) is linked with the evolution of photosymbiosis.

NORZAGARAY-LOPEZ O. C., CALDERON-AGUILERA L. E., CASTRO-CESENA A. B., HIRATA G., HERNANDEZ-AYON J. M. 2017. Skeletal dissolution kinetics and mechanical tests in response to morphology among coral genera. Facies / online since 13 January 2017
[keywords: Coral skeletons; Reef sediments; Reef diagenesis; Dissolution kinetics]
Ocean acidification is widely accepted as a primary threat to coral reef populations. Negative physiological effects include decreased calcification rates, heightened metabolic energy expenditure, and increased dissolution of coral skeletons. However, studies on the dissolution of coral skeletons structures under ocean acidification conditions and their implications on sediments remain scarce. In this work, we examined skeletal dissolution kinetics from four of the most representative hermatypic corals of the Eastern Pacific coasts (Pocillopora, Porites, Pavona, and Psammocora). Samples were treated with a highly acidic solution for defined periods of time, and measurements of dissolved calcium ([Ca+2]) were used to evaluate the kinetics of coral skeleton dissolution. All genera tests except Porites showed a zero reaction rate. Porites exhibited a first-order reaction and a faster reaction rate than other genera. Compression strength tests and skeletal density did not correlate with reaction rate. Pavona showed greater structural strength. Porites were the most susceptible to acidic dissolution compared to other genera tested due to their morphology, i.e., possession of the largest surface area, suggesting a high vulnerability under low-pH conditions. The hierarchical response in dissolution kinetics among coral genera tested suggests that the most soluble coral might act as a buffer under ocean acidification conditions.

PERYT T. M., RACZYNSKI P., PERYT D., CHLODEK K., MIKOLAJEWSKI Z. 2016. Sedimentary history and biota of the Zechstein Limestone (Permian, Wuchiapingian) of the Jablonna Reef in Western Poland. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 86: 379-413. doi: https://doi.org/10.14241/asgp.2016.011
[keywords: Wuchiapingian, reefs, Zechstein, bryozoans, stromatolites, aragonite cementation, neptunian dykes, carbon and oxygen isotopes]
The Jablonna Reef, one of the reefs formed in Wuchiapingian time in the western part of the Wolsztyn palaeo-High (SW Poland), is characterized by quite irregular outlines and consists of three separate reef bodies (ca. 0.5-1.5 km2 each; the thickness of the reef complex is usually >60 m). It is penetrated by four boreholes, which show two distinct phases of bryozoan reef development during deposition of the the Zechstein Limestone. The first one occurred early in the depositional history and botryoidal aragonitic cementation played a very important role in reef formation. This phase of bryozoan reef development terminated suddenly; one possible reason was that a relative change of sea level - first a fall and then a rise - disturbed the upwelling circulation. Consequently, bioclastic deposition predominated for a relatively long time until the second phase of bryozoan reef development occurred, but the latter was not accompanied by dubious early cementation. During this second phase, reticular fenestellid bryozoans were predominant. Subsequently, microbial reefs developed and abound in the upper part of the Zechstein Limestone sections. The general shallowing-upward nature of deposition in the Jablonna Reef area resulted in reef-flat conditions with ubiquitous, microbial deposits, in the central part of the Jablonna Reef. Then, the reef-flat started to prograde and eventually the entire Jablonna Reef area became the site of very shallow, subaqueous deposition. Five biofacies are distinguished in the Jablonna Reef sections: the Acanthocladia biofacies at the base, then mollusc-crinoid, brachiopod-bryozoan, Rectifenestella and at the top, stromatolite biofacies. They represent a shallowing-upward cycle, possibly with some important fluctuation recorded as the distinctive lithofacies boundary, corresponding to the Acanthocladia/mollusc-crinoid biofacies boundary. The 13C curves of the Jablonna 2 and Jablonna 4 boreholes permit correlation of the trends in the middle parts of both sections and confirm the strong diachroneity of the biofacies boundaries, with the exception of the roughly isochronous Acanthocladia/ mollusc-crinoid biofacies boundary. The presence of echinoderms and strophomenid brachiopods indicates that until deposition of the lower part of the Rectifenestella biofacies, conditions were clearly stenohaline. The subsequent elimination of stenohaline organisms and progressively poorer taxonomic differentiation of the faunal assemblage are characteristic for a slight, gradual rise in salinity. The taxonomic composition of organisms forming the Jablonna Reef shows a similarity to reefs described from England and Germany, as well as the marginal carbonate platform of SW Poland. Filled fissures were recorded in the lower part of the Jablonna Reef. The aragonite cementation recorded in some fissure fillings implies that they originated in rocks exposed on the sea floor and are neptunian dykes.

SAN MIGUEL G., AURELL M., BADENAS B. 2017. Occurrence of high-diversity metazoan- to microbial-dominated bioconstructions in a shallow Kimmeridgian carbonate ramp (Jabaloyas, Spain). Facies / online since 08 April 2017
[keywords: Carbonate ramp; Reef; Kimmeridgian; Corals; Microbialites; Stromatoporoids]
The horizontal and vertical transitions of a wide range of bioconstructions are documented from the shallow domains of a Kimmeridgian carbonate ramp (Upper Jurassic) in the Jabaloyas area of NE Spain. The bioconstructions include microbial buildups, coral-bearing thrombolite buildups, coral-microbial buildups, branching coral patches, oyster patches, and stromatoporoid carpets. Buildups form stacked pinnacles up to 19 m thick, within a broad spectrum of coeval inter-buildup carbonate facies. Coral-bearing thrombolites are coincident with shallow-marine oolitic sands, indicating development during the initial platform flooding (unit 1). During the continued sea-level rise (units 2 and 3), coral-microbial buildups [encrusted by Crescentiella (Tubiphytes) and serpulids] were established from proximal to distal mid-ramp domains, and these showed an increasing proportion of microbial crust in distal domains. Inter-buildup oolitic facies sharply grade down-dip to hummocky cross-stratified intraclastic, peloidal, and skeletal deposits, mostly sourced from the coral-microbial buildups. The lower part of unit 4 was dominated by microbialites in the proximal areas, related to local fresh-water input causing seawater stratification and oxygen depletion. The upper part of unit 4 indicates an initial recovery of metazoan frame builders, with abundant branching corals. During the late regression (units 5 and 6), Marinella lugeoni red algae, oyster patches, and stromatoporoid boulders developed close to the shoreline in well-oxygenated waters with high nutrient content. The reported data contribute to the discussion of the optimal environmental conditions for each "bioconstruction window" in Jabaloyas, namely sediment and nutrient supply, water depth, water oxygenation, wave energy and light availability.

SCHMITT D., GISCHLER E. 2017. Recent sedimentary facies of Roatan (Bay Islands, Honduras), a Caribbean oceanic barrier reef system. Facies 63: 5 / online since 08 December 2016 [abstract added]
[keywords: Caribbean; Barrier reef; Roatan; Carbonates; Sedimentary facies]
This project was developed to investigate systematically patterns of recent sedimentary facies around one of the rare Caribbean examples of an oceanic barrier reef system. Seventeen sediment samples collected around Roatan (Bay Islands, Honduras) range from fine to very coarse bioclastic sand. Sorting is either moderate or poor, which suggests a weak influence of transport processes. Occurrence and abundance of major grain types are principally comparable to other modern reefal systems; however, there are some differences in terms of absolute grain abundance. Corals and calcareous algae are very abundant in marginal reefal sediments where they reach average amounts of 24% and 32%, respectively. Lagoonal sediments contain on average 14% foraminifera, 15% molluscs, 16% Halimeda, and 31% fine material (<125 ?m). Statistical analyses revealed five sedimentary facies including algal-rich rudstone, coralgal grainstone, mixed skeletal pack-floatstone and foraminiferal-molluscan wackestone. The facies distribution pattern results from the interplay of the ecology of carbonate-producers, carbonate production and destruction, sediment stability, depositional energy, and reef morphology. Roatan is a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic system, although despite the proximity to a metamorphic island, the average content of siliciclastics in reefal (2%) and lagoonal (17%) sediments is not very high. The lack of higher amounts of siliciclastic material is attributed to the absence of permanent river systems and a high carbonate production rate. Non-skeletal grains (peloids) are common in protected areas of the Roatan marginal reefs, although ooids are rare in the system as a whole. Reduced skeletal grain formation and decreased sedimentation rate seem to be responsible for the peloid enrichment in areas near the reef-lagoon transition zone.

ZHENG Li-Jing, BAO Hong-Ping, WU Ya-Sheng, SUN Liu-Yi, JIANG Hong-Xia, REN Jun-Feng, HUANG Zheng-Liang, LIU Li-Jing 2018. Distinguishing coral reef facies from coral-bearing open platform facies: examples from Ordovician Ordos Basin, Northwest China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 495, 15 April 2018: 72-86; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.12.031
[keywords: boundstones; patch reef; community paleoecology; Shijiezigou; Upper Ordovician]
Highlights: * lithology and paleontological features of the Shijiezigou section are described; ** how to differ a coral reef from a coral-bearing open platform is clarified; *** presence of a topographic relief and lacking bedding planes are key features of a reef; **** according to the dominant organism, the four communities are recognized.

back to top

Paleontological bibliography by Tomasz Wrzolek:
Arnost GALLE - Helfried MOSTLER - Freek RHEBERGEN - Vlasta ZUKALOVA

Arnost GALLE (1942-2018)

Presented are 56 papers authored or co-authored by our late Colleague, 52 of these listed by the FC&P newsletter, four added kindly by Jindra Hladil; they were sorted firstly in chronological and secondly in alphabetical order.
GALLE A. 1964. Nova morfologicka struktura u radu Heliolitida. [New morphological stucture of Heliolitida.]. Cas. Nar. Muz., Odd. prirodoved. 133, 4: 225-226; Praha.
GALLE A., HORNY R. 1964. Neobvykly vyvoj kolonie korala Favosites forbesi M.-E. & H., 1851. [An unusual development of the colony of Favosites forbesi M.-E. & H., 1851]. Cas. Nar. Muz., Odd. prirodoved. 133, 3: 126-129; Praha.
GALLE A. 1968. Two new heliolitoid species from the Silurian of Bohemia (Anthozoa). Vestnik Ustredniho Ustavu Geologickeho 43: 53-55; Praha.
GALLE A. 1969. On the genus Helioplasma Kettnerova, 1933 (Anthozoa, Heliolitoidea). Vestnik Ustredniho Ustavu Geologickeho 46, 3: 167-173. [FC&P 38_1: 21]
OLIVER W.A. jr, GALLE A. 1971. Calceola (= Rhizophyllum) and Billingsastraea (= Iowaphyllum) in Bohemia. Vestnik Ustredniho Ustavu Geologickeho 46: 209-216. [FC&P 01_2: 16]
OLIVER W.A. jr, GALLE A. 1971. Rugose corals from the Upper Koneprusy Limestone (Lower Devonian) in Bohemia. Sbor. geol. ved., paleontologie 14: 35-106. [FC&P 01_2: 17]
GALLE A., WEYER D. 1972. Heliolitida (Anthozoa) aus dem Unterdevon von Thüringen. Jb. Geol. 4: 425-457. [FC&P 02_2: 16]
GALLE A. 1973. Family Heliolitidae from the Bohemian Paleozoic. Sbor. geol. ved., paleontologie 15: 7-48. [FC&P 02_2: 16]
GALLE A., WEYER D. 1973. Bitraia gen. nov. (Anthozoa Rugosa) aus dem Mitteldevon der CSSR. Palaeont. Abh. 1973, A4: 707-722. [FC&P 02_2: 16]
GALLE A. 1974. List of paleontological types kept in the Geological Institute of Prague (Ustredni Ustav Geologicky, Praha). FC&P 03, 1: 35-39. [FC&P 03_1: 35]
GALLE A. 1976. Rugose coral Petraiella in the Famennian (Upper Devonian) of Bohemia. Vestnik Ustredniho Ustavu Geologickeho 51, 4: 279-280. [FC&P 05_1: 14]
GALLE A. 1976. Favositids of the basal Zlichov Limestone (Lower Devonian) of Bohemia. Casopis pro mineralogii a geologii 21, 4: 363-368. [FC&P 06_1: 22]
GALLE A., CHLUPAC I. 1976. Finds of corals in the metamorphic Devonian of the Jestedske pohori Mountains. Vestnik Ustredniho Ustavu Geologickeho 51: 123-127. [FC&P 05_2: 5]
MAREK L., GALLE A. 1976. The tabulate coral Hyostragulum, an epizoan with bearing on hyolithid ecology and systematics. Lethaia 9, 1: 51-64. [FC&P 05_1: 33]
GALLE A. 1978. Favositidae (Tabulata) from the Devonian of Bohemia. Sbornik Geologickych Ved [Journal of Geological Sciences], Ustredni Ustav Geologicky, paleontologie 20: 33-62. [FC&P 38_1: 21]
GALLE A. 1981. Rugose corals of the slopes of Bohemian Massif in the regions South. Biostratigrafie Paleozoika na jihovychodni Morave 2: 59-66. [FC&P 11_2: 26]
ZUKALOVA V., KALVODA J., GALLE A., HLADIL J. 1981. Biostratigraphy of the Paleozoic rocks in the deep boreholes southeast of Brno, Biostratigrafie Paleozoika: 7-30; Hodonin. [FC&P 11_2: 44]
GALLE A. 1983. Spongophyllidae (Rugosa) of Bohemian Silurian and Devonian. Sbornik narod. Mus. Praze 39, 2: 115-126. [FC&P 12_2: 28]
DVORAK J., FRIAKOVA O., GALLE A., HLADIL J., SKOCEK V. 1984. Correlation of the reef and basin facies of Frasnian age in the Krtiny HV-105 borehole in the Moravian Karst. Sbornik geologickych ved., Geol. 39: 73-163. [FC&P 14_1: 65]
GALLE A. 1984. Rugosni korali a biostratigrafie paleozoika ve vrtu Ostravice jizne od Ostravy [Rugosa and biostratigraphy of Palaeozic in Ostravice borehole, south of Ostrava]. Acta Universitatis Carolinae Geologica 3: 237-249. [FC&P 15_1.2: 25]
FRIAKOVA O., GALLE A., HLADIL J., KALVODA J. 1985. A Lower Famennian fauna from the top of the reefoid limestones at Mokra (Moravia, Czechoslovakia). Newsletter for Stratigraphy 15, 1: 43-56. [FC&P 14_2: 32]
GALLE A. 1985. On some Moravian Devonian Rugosa. Vestnik Ustredniho ustavu geologickeho 60, 4: 241-244. [FC&P 15_1.2: 25]
GALLE A. 1985. Biostratigraphy and rugose corals of Moravian Devonian (Czechoslovakia). Newsletter for Stratigraphy 14: 48-68. [FC&P 14_1: 46]
GALLE A. 1987. Rugose corals from the Mokra Cement Works quarry east of Brno (Famennian, Palmatolepis crepida Zone). Vestnik Ustredniho Ustavu Geologickeho 62, 1: 35-40. [FC&P 16_1: 57]
GALLE A., FRIAKOVA O., HLADIL J., KALVODA J., KREJCI Z., ZUKALOVA V. 1989. Biostratigraphy of Middle and Upper Devonian Carbonates of Moravia, Czechoslovakia. Memoir, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, 14, 3: 633-645 [dated 1988]. [FC&P 18_2: 29]
HLADIL J., KALVODA J., FRIAKOVA O., GALLE A., KREJCI Z. 1989. Fauna from the limestones at the Frasnian / Famennian boundary at Mokra (Devonian, Moravia, Czechoslovakia). Sbor. geol. Ved, Paleont. 30: 61-84. [FC&P 18_1: 33]
LUTTE B.-P., GALLE A. 1989. Erster Nachweis der Gattung Amplexocarinia (Rugosa) im Elfelium der Nord-Eifel (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 63, 3-4: 165-176. [FC&P 18_2: 33]
GALLE A., HLADIL J. 1991. Lower Palaeozoic corals of Bohemia and Moravia. Excursion B3, VI International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera, Muenster, 83 pp. [FC&P 20_2: 48]

back to top

HLADIL J., KREJCI Z., KALVODA J., GINTER M., GALLE A., BEROUSEK P. 1991. Carbonate ramp environment of Kellwasser time-interval (Lesni Lom, Moravia, Czechoslovakia). Bulletin de la Societe belge de Geologie 100, 1-2: 57-119. [FC&P 21_2: 57]
ISAACSON P.E., GALLE A. 1991. Significance of Amphipora floatstones within the Lazanky Limestone (Late Givetian), Moravian Karst. Vestnik Ustredniho Ustavu Geologickeho 66, 5: 275-285. [FC&P 21_1.1: 55]
HLADIL J., OTAVA J., GALLE A. 1992. Oligocene Carbonate Buildups of the Sirt Basin Libya. Geol. Libya 4: 1401-1420. [FC&P 21_2: 56]
GALLE A. 1993. Middle Devonian Rugosa from Horni Benesov (Moravia, Czech Republic). Journal of Czech Geological Society 38, 1-2: 59-70. [FC&P 22_2: 80]
GALLE A. 1994. Rugose corals of the Acanthopyge Limestone of Koneprusy (Middle Devonian, Barrandian, Czech Republic). Vestnik Ceskeho geologickeho ustavu 69, 1: 41-58. [FC&P 23_1.1: 64]
GALLE A., MAREK L., VANNIER J., RACHEBOEUF P.R., REGNAULT S. 1994. Assemblage epibenthique a hyolithes, tabule Epizoaire et ostracode Beyrichiacea du Devonien inferieur du Maroc et d'Espagne. Revue de Paleobiologie 13, 2: 411-425. [in French, with English abstract] [FC&P 24_2: 86]
GALLE A. 1995. The Breviphrentis-dominated coral faunule from the Middle Devonian of Moravia, Czech Republic. Vestnik Ceskeho geologickeho ustavu 70, 2: 59-70. [FC&P 24_2: 82]
GALLE A., HLADIL J. 1995. 70th birthday of Vlasta Zukalova. FC&P 24, 2: 19-21. [FC&P 24_2: 19]
GALLE A., HLADIL J., ISAACSON P.E. 1995. Middle Devonian biogeography of closing South Laurussia-North Gondwana Variscides: Examples from the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic), with emphasis on Horni Benesov. Palaios 10: 221-239. [FC&P 24_2: 77]
GALLE A., HLADIL J. 1997. Functional Morphology Analysis of the Tabulae in Favosites sp. from the Emsian / Eifelian Boundary Interval in Barrandian, Czech Republic. Coral Research Bulletin 5: 141-149. [FC&P 27_1: 82]
GALLE A., HLADIL J., MAY A. 1999. Two new corals from the Koneprusy Limestone (Lower Devonian, Pragian, Barrandian, Czech Republic). Journal Czech geological Society 44, 1-2 [Barrande Vol.]: 181-187. [FC&P 28_1: 33]
HLADIL J., MAZUR S., GALLE A., EBERT J.R. 1999. Revised age of the Maly Bozkow limestone in the Klodzko metamorphic unit (early Givetian, late Middle Devonian) implications for the geology of the Sudetes, SW Poland. N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Abh. 211, 3: 329-353. [FC&P 28_1: 65]
CHLUPAC I., GALLE A., HLADIL J., KALVODA J. 2000. Series and stage boundaries in the Devonian of the Czech Republic. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 225: 159-172. [FC&P 30_2: 9]
GALLE A., PROKOP R.J. 2000. Complex parasitism and symbiosis of crinoid, subepidermal parasite, and tabulate coral, Lower Devonian (Pragian), Barrandian, Czech Republic. Vestnik Ceskeho geologickeho ustavu 75: 441-444. [FC&P 38_1: 21]
KRIZ J., FRYDA J., GALLE A. 2001. The epiplanktic anthozoan, Kolihaia eremita Prantl, 1946 (Cnidaria), from the Silurian of the Prague Basin (Bohemia). Journal of the Czech Geological Society 46, 3 [HavlÝcek Volume]: 239-245. [FC&P 31_1: 53]
GALLE A., PLUSQUELLEC Y. 2002. Systematics, morphology, and paleobiogeography of Lower Devonian tabulate coral epibionts: Hyostragulidae fam. nov. on hyolithids. Coral Research Bulletin 7: 053-064. [Dieter Weyer?s 65th birthday commemorative volume; S. Schröder, H. Löser & K. Oekentorp (eds)] [FC&P 31_1: 62]
GALLE A., MIKULAS R. 2003. Evidence of Predation on the Rugose Coral Calceola sandalina (Devonian, Czech Republic). Ichnos 10: 41-45. [FC&P 38_2: 72]
GALLE A., FICNER F. 2004. Middle Devonian Calceola sandalina (Linnaeus, 1771) (Anthozoa, Rugosa) from Moravia (Czech Republic): aspects of functional morphology, gerontic growth patterns, and epibionts. Geodiversitas 26, 1: 17-31. [FC&P 33_1: 53]
GALLE A., PARSLEY R.L. 2005. Epibiont relationships on hyolithids demonstrated by Ordovician trepostomes (Bryozoa). Bulletin of Geosciences 80, 2: 125-138. [FC&P 38_2: 165]
GALLE A. 2007. Spinophyllum Wedekind, 1922 (Anthozoa, Rugosa) in the Lower Givetian (Devonian) of Bohemian Massif. Bulletin of Geosciences 82, 2: 133-144. [FC&P 35: 53]
CEJCHAN P.A., HLADIL J., GALLE A. 2008. Growth patterns of stromatoporoids as possible indicators of broad palaeoenvironmental conditions. Poster presented at the Joint SDS-IGCP 499 meeting at Kitab Geological Reserve, Uzbekistan, September 2008. [www.gli.cas.cz/home/cejchan/papers/posterStromUzb2008.pdf] [FC&P 38_2: 50]
GALLE A., HLADIL J., CEJCHAN P.A. 2008. Stromatoporoid growth periodicity investigated. 9th Czech-Polish-Slovak Paleontological Conference, Warszawa, October 10-11, 2008. [www.gli.cas.cz/home/cejchan/papers/posterStromWa2008.pdf] [FC&P 38_2: 51]
CEJCHAN P.A., HLADIL J., GALLE A. 2009. Stromatoporoid skeletal growth as a quasi-periodic process. 10th Anniversary Conference of the Czech, Polish, and Slovak Paleontologists, October 13-15, 2009, Banská Bystrica, Slovakia. Poster Session Supplementary Paper 2. Banská Bystrica, Slovakia, 2 pp. [FC&P 36: 28]
HLADIL J., KOPTIKOVA L., GALLE A., SEDLACEK V., PRUNER P., SCHNABL P., LANGROVA A., BABEK O., FRANA J., HLADIKOVA J., OTAVA J., GERSL M. 2009. Early middle Frasnian (E-MF) platform reef strata in the Moravian Karst interpreted as recording the atmospheric dust changes: the key to understanding perturbations in the punctata conodont zone. Bulletin of Geosciences 84: 75-106. [FC&P 36: 114]
MACHADO G., HLADIL J., KOPTIKOVA L., FONSECA P.E., ROCHA F.T., GALLE A. 2009. The Odivelas Limestone: evidence for a Middle Devonian reef system in western Ossa-Morena Zone (Portugal). Geologica Carpathica 60, 2: 121-137. [FC&P 36: 116]
HLADIL J., KOPTIKOVA L., SCHNABL P., SLECHTA S., GALLE A., STRNAD L., DRABKOVA V. 2010. Complex pathways of iron uptake in stromatoporoid skeletons: variability mapped by magnetic susceptibility. IGCP 580 Meeting: Applications of Magnetic Susceptibility on Paleozoic Rocks, 28th November-4th December 2010, Guilin, China; Meeting Programme and Abstracts [D. Chen & A. C. da Silva (eds.)]: 4-5; Beijing. [FC&P 36: 127]
LISY P., CEJCHAN P., GALLE A., FILIP J., SLAVIK L. HLADIL J., BABEK O. 2010. Stromatoporoid growth-band series: optical logs as a scale for magnetic susceptibility sampling. IGCP 580 Meeting [D. Chen & A.C. da Silva (eds.): Applications of Magnetic Susceptibility on Paleozoic Rocks; 28th November-4th December 2010, Guilin, China]; Meeting Programme and Abstracts: 29-30; Beijing. [FC&P 36: 34]
PLUSQUELLEC Y., GALLE A., FRANKE C. 2016. New hyostragulids, Tabulata incertae sedis from the Wiltz-beds, Upper Emsian of Western Eifel (Germany). Ferrantia 73: 111-126; Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle, Luxembourg.

Helfried MOSTLER (1934 - 2017)

back to top

Helfried MOSTLER, emeritus Professor of the Innsbruck University, author and co-author of papers on fossil sponges listed in the database of our newsletter (http://kse.wnoz.us.edu.pl/sql/index.php), passed away in February 2017.

1989 MOSTLER H. Mikroskleren hexactinellider Schwämme aus dem Lias der Nördlichen Kalkalpen. Jb. Geol. B.-A. 132, 4: 687-700.
1989 MOSTLER H. Mit "Zygomen" ausgestattete Dermalia von Kieselschwämmen (Demospongiae) aus pelagischen Sedimenten der Obertrias und des unteren Jura (Nördliche Kalkalpen). Jb. Geol. B.-A. 132, 4: 701-726.
1990 MOSTLER H. Mikroskleren von Demospongien (Porifera) aus dem basalen Jura der Nördlichen Kalkalpen. Geol.-Paläont. Mitt. Innsbruck 17: 119-142.
1990 MOSTLER H. Hexactinellide Poriferen aus pelagischen Kieselkalken (Unterlias, Nördliche Kalkalpen). Geol. Paläont. Mitt. Innsbruck 17: 143-178.
1990 MOSTLER H., MEHL D. On the origin of Hexasterophora and Amphidiscophora (Hexactinellida). A further discussion of their phylogenetic significance. FC&P 19, 2.1: 13-15.
1992 KRAINER K., MOSTLER H. Neue Hexactinellide Poriferen aus der Südalpinen Mitteltrias der Karawanken (Kärnten, Österreich). Geol.-Paläont. Mitt. Innsbruck 18: 131-150.
[see also https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helfried_Mostler]

Freek RHEBERGEN (1933-2018)

back to top

RHEBERGEN F., WINTERMAN W. 1994. Aulocopium in omringend gesteente. Grondboor en Hamer 48, 4/5: 80-83.
In the border-region of the Netherlands and Germany and near Zwolle four specimens of anthaspidellid sponges, embedded in silicified ordovician limestone, have been collected in the last years. Both authors regard the occurrence of the three specimens of Aulocopium aurantium and one of Hudsonospongia cf. cyclostoma as a matter of importance, the specimens being the only known ones among about 2.600 inventoried specimens of Aulocopium in Dutch collections. They hope to gain more information about the accompanying fossils by new reports from collectors. [English summary of a paper in Dutch]

RHEBERGEN F., von HACHT U. 1996. De ordovicische sponzenfauna uit Nederland en het Duitse grensgebied en de vergelijking ervan met de sponzen van Sylt, de Lausitz en Gotland. Grondboor en Hamer 50, 4: 83-94.
An inventory of over 12.000 erratic Ordovician sponges, collected in the Lower-Pleistocene fluvial sediments in the NE Dutch-German border region, has been drawn up and the results have been statistically processed. The fauna, representing at least 27 species, is compared with those of the island Sylt (24.300 specimens), the Lausitz (430) and the island of Gotland (300). The species Astylospongia praemorsa, Syltrochos pyramidoidalis, Carpospongia conwentzi, Diotricheum vonhachti and their genera show remarkable differences in frequency. The occurrence of two species, Streptosolen sp. Ulrich & Everett 1889 and Nevadocoelia pulchra Bassler 1927, is reported. So far their occurrence in this region and probably in Europe has been unknown. It is quite unlikely that the Ordovician deposits in the Baltic Sea or the Gulf of Bothnia are the source rocks of the predominating Upper-Ordovician sponges, among other things because of the few species as well as the small numbers of specimens found in these areas in relation to the numerous erratic sponges. During the Ordovician the above-mentioned areas were marine epicontinental basins. They were situated on a latitude too high for a tropical fauna and probably have been influenced by an E-W cold sea current. The authors suppose the sponges, as well as the contemporaneous tabulate corals, stromatopores and other fossils in the "lavenderblue" silicifications, to originate mainly from tropical shelves along the northern coasts of the palaeocontinent Baltica or possibly from Siberia. [English abstract of a paper in Dutch]
von HACHT U., RHEBERGEN F. 1996. Sponzentelling van Sylt II. Grondboor en Hamer 50, 1: 12-16.
In an earlier paper (Grondboor en Hammer 1994) the results of counts on 16.000 erratic Ordovician silicified sponges from the Braderup kaolinsands of Sylt have been reported. The sponges are present in a number of local collections. Additionally an inventory has been made of 8.000 sponges from a collection kept at Hamburg University. Of the known 35.600 specimens, divided over at least 25 species, more than 24.300 specimens have been processed statistically. In this paper the species Rhopalocoelia cf. R. clarkii Raymond & Okulitch, 1940 is reported as a new European erratic sponge. Taking into consideration the paleobiogeographic development of the paleocontinent Baltica, the sponges are supposed not only to originate from the Baltoscandinavian/Finnish continental basin, but mainly from the old shelves along the paleocontinent Baltica or Siberia. [English abstract of a paper in Dutch]

RHEBERGEN F. 1997. Ordovicische sponzen: sleutel tot een nieuw terrein van het zwerfsteenonderzoek? 6e Nederlands Zwerfsteensymposium; pp 1-15; Groningen.
RHEBERGEN F. 1997. Twee nieuwe sponzensoorten als zwerfsteen in Nederland: Chiastoclonella sp. en Syltispongia ingemariae. Grondboor en Hamer 51, 6: 138-143.
Among the thousands of erratic silicified sponges from sandpits with Lower Pleistocene fluvial arenaceous deposits in the Dutch-German border region two species of Ordovician chiastoclonellid sponges have been recognised. The author reports the occurrence of 9 specimens of Chiastoclonella sp. Rauff 1895 and of 14 specimens of Syltispongia ingemariae van Kempen 1990. Most specimens in private collections have been collected already many years ago, but went unrecognised until now. The author expects more reports from collectors as a result of this paper. [English abstract of a paper in Dutch]
RHEBERGEN F., von HACHT U. 1997. Astylospongia gothlandica als vormvariant van Caryospongia diadema. Grondboor en Hamer 51, 3/4: 57-61.
Among the nearly 40.000 investigated erratic Ordovician sponges in Europe the authors report the occurrence of 5 specimens of 'Astylospongia gothlandica' Schlüter 1884, probably being a constant formvariaton of Caryospongia diadema (Klöden) Rauff 1893. It is remarkable that this form occurs among 350 known erratic specimens collected at Gotland and has not been recognised yet among the tens of thousands of sponges from other localities. The authors want to be sure whether this constant formvariation of Caryospongia gothlandica has been overlooked in Dutch and German collections, or has to be considered as a formvariation exclusively occurring at Gotland. The authors are asking private collectors and institutes to check their specimens of Caryospongia diadema and to report them any positive results. [English abstract of a paper in Dutch]
von HACHT U., RHEBERGEN F. 1997. Caryospongia diadema von Gotland. Der Geschiebesammler 30, 2: 67-77.
von HACHT U., RHEBERGEN F. 1997. Ordovizische Geschiebespongien Europas. In: M. Zwanzig & H Löser (eds): Berliner Beiträge zur Geschiebeforschung; pp 51-63, 10 figs, 2 tabs, 3 pls, Berlin.
RHEBERGEN F. 1999. Sponzen van heinde en verre. Maar hoe ver is ver en waar ligt heinde? Schoklandreeks 5, pp 1-22, 23 figs, 2 pls (Brochure ter gelegenheid van verleende van der Lijnonderscheiding).

RHEBERGEN F., von HACHT U. 2000. Schismospongia syltensis gen.n. sp.n. (Porifera), ein neuer Geschiebeschwamm aus plio-pleistozänen Kaolinsanden von Sylt (Nordwest-Deutschland). Archiv für Geschiebekunde 2, 11: 797-804.
A new anthaspidellid sponge is described from the commonly named kaolinsand exposed in sandpits in Wenningstedt/Braderup on the island of Sylt. Schismospongia syltensis gen. n. sp. n. has a skeleton of dendroclones, which shows similarities with that of representatives of the family Anthaspidellidae, but differs from all other genera presently known in the arrangement of the canal system, as well as in its environmental preference for living in natural clefts.

RHEBERGEN F., von HACHT U. 2000. Ordovician erratic sponges from Gotland, Sweden. GFF 122, 4: 339-349.
Erratic Ordovician sponges (Porifera) from Gotland in the collections of the Swedish Museum of Natural History in Stockholm and the Natural Museum in Visby were subject of an inventory, the results of which are presented in this paper. The sponges are part of an extensive and diverse Upper Ordovician sponge fauna that lived partly in tropical shelf areas and partly in a continental basin of the palaeocontinent Baltica. As a result of their transportation most of these sponges are isolated silicified bodies without adhering sediment. Since no major Ordovician sponge fauna has been found in solid rocks of Baltoscandia, the source area of these erratics is unknown. The sponges from Gotland were deposited during the Weichselian glaciation. They have been compared with erratic Ordovician sponges from Germany, The Netherlands, and Poland by a quantitative method of research. Generic composition of the sponge association from Gotland is identical to that from Sadewitz/Sawidowice (Poland), which was deposited during the Saalian glaciation. There is also a similarity to the majority of sponges in the Dutch/German border region that were deposited in glaciofluvial sediments during the Menapian (Early Pleistocene). The characteristics of the sponges from the Lausitz area (Germany) and from the Isle of Sylt (Germany), which were deposited in Middle Miocene and Late Pliocene time, respectively, are different. A supposed bipartition of these associations is discussed and related to the palaeogeography and palaeoecology in the Late Ordovician. Extinction of the Baltic sponge fauna is possibly related to the glaciations during the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician). The importance of this fossil sponge fauna is emphasized.

RHEBERGEN F., EGGINK R., KOOPS T., RHEBERGEN B. 2001. Ordovicische zwerfsteensponzen. Staringia 9; Grondboor en Hamer 55, 2 (?): 144 pp, 68 figs, 43 pls. [reported by FC&P30, 2: 37]
Over many years more than 60.000 silicified Ordovician erratic sponges from the palaeocontinent Baltica have been collected in some areas in Northern Europe. Especially in the Netherlands some hundred enthusiastic amateur geologists have stored about 20.000 specimens in their private collections or housed them in museums. However, appropriate literature to identify them properly is not readily available. Either the literature is too old to be loaned out by museums or institutes, or it is inaccessible to the average amateur, due to both the scientific level and the need to read foreign languages. The purpose of this volume is first of all to provide a guide, a manual for Dutch (and German) amateurs. This atlas also serves other purposes: It is also meant to give an overview of the current knowledge of this subject at a time that sponges are the subject of extensive research. Besides, there is presently a concentration of knowledge, experience and availability of the material. The third purpose is to draw the attention of sponge specialists throughout the world to the extensive and varied sponge assemblages from Baltica. It is remarkable that in the 19th century German sponge specialists, such as Roemer, Rauff and von Zittel, were leading the research and even examined American sponges. After that generation only a few European palaeontologists continued these investigations. Over the years American specialists dominated sponge research. Perhaps as a result of this development Baltic sponges were gradually left out of palaeontological focus. Perhaps this atlas will stimulate renewed interest in these varied, sometimes wonderfully preserved, erratic sponge assemblages. [introduction to English summary]

back to top

RHEBERGEN F., van KEMPEN T. 2002. An unusual Silurian erratic astylospongiid (Porifera) from Gotland, Sweden. GFF 124, 4: 185-192.
[keywords: astylospongiid sponges, Porifera, Silurian, erratics, Gotland, Baltica]
Astylospongia gothlandica Schlüter, 1884 was considered by Rauff (1893) and later authors as synonymous with Caryospongia diadema (Klöden, 1834). However, recent examination of the holotype and of several identical specimens found as erratics has revealed an internal skeletal and canal structure basically different from that of both the genus Astylospongia, and other genera of the family. Therefore, the new genus Caryoconus is introduced. Caryoconus gothlandicus (Schlüter, 1884) differs from all of the other transported sponge pebbles in its very restricted distribution, in that this species was found only on Gotland. A Silurian age was established on microfossils that occur with some of the sponges. This contrasts to all of the other numerous erratic sponge species, which originated from Late Ordovician beds. Because of this, it is concluded that representatives of Caryoconus gothlandicus came from an unknown, most probably restricted source area different from the source area of the numerous erratic sponge species from older strata.

RHEBERGEN F. 2003. In memoriam Ulrich von Hacht. Geschiebekunde aktuell 19, 2: 63-64.

RHEBERGEN F. 2004. Caryoconus gothlandicus, een verrassende zwerfsteenspons van Gotland, Zweden. Grondboor en Hamer 58, 1: 7-14; http://natuurtijdschriften.nl/record/406090
[summary in Dutch] In 1997 publiceerden Ulrich von Hacht en ik in Grondboor & Hamer een artikel over Astylospongia gothlandica Schlüter, 1884, een merkwaardige fossiele zwerfsteenspons van het eiland Gotland. Wij deden daarin een oproep om informatie over vondsten van deze spons, zowel van Gotland zelf als daarbuiten. Enkele afbeeldingen toonden de van andere astylospongiide soorten afwijkende vorm. Wij gebruikten daarin de voorlopige naam Caryospongia gothlandica, omdat een 'gesteelde' Astylospongia een contradictio is: a-stylo = zonder steel. In onderstaand artikel wordt het verrassende resultaat van het verdere onderzoek weergegeven.

RHEBERGEN F. 2004. A new Ordovician astylospongiid sponge (Porifera) as an erratic from Baltica. Geologie en Mijnbouw 83, 4: 255-265; https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016774600020357
Until now hemispherical astylospongiid sponges were invariably referred to as Caryospongia juglans var. basiplana Rauff. Renewed investigations have now shown that part of the material should be assigned to a new genus and species, Tympanospongia vankempeni, which is characterised by a system of very irregular canals. These flat-based sponges originate from the Baltic region and occur in two assemblages of silicified Late Ordovician sponges known exclusively as erratics from The Netherlands and northern Germany. These fossils were transported by the River Eridanos, a former drainage system from the Baltic region that filled the North European Basin during the Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Specimens of Tympanospongia vankempeni gen. et sp. nov. also occur in the Upper Pleistocene of Gotland, Sweden. The new sponge described herein principally differs from other genera of the Astylospongiidae found frequently in the erratic sponge assemblages by its irregular system of apochetes which ramify and anastomose commonly.

RHEBERGEN F. 2005. Tympanospongia vankempeni, een oude 'basiplana' - spons met een nieuwe naam. Grondboor en Hamer 59, 2: 29-34; http://natuurtijdschriften.nl/record/406135
In 'Ordovicische Zwerfsteensponzen' (Staringia 9, pp 128-129, 2001) zijn sponzen beschreven en afgebeeld onder de naam 'Astylospongia' basiplana. De aanhalingstekens duidden op een terughoudendheid ten aanzien van de geslachtsnaam. Van Kempen had zich in het verleden al beziggehouden met enkele sponzen met een platte basis, maar de resultaten ervan waren in 2000 niet beschikbaar. Onlangs is de wetenschappelijke beschrijving van deze spons gepubliceerd (Rhebergen, 2004). Onderstaand artikel is daarvan een beknopte en vereenvoudigde bewerking. [Dutch summary]

RHEBERGEN F. 2005. Sponges (Porifera) from Silurian strata on Gotland, Sweden. GFF 127, 3: 211-216; https://doi.org/10.1080/11035890501273211
[keywords: Porifera, Demospongea, Heteractinida, Calcarea, Polyactinellidae, phobetractinid spicules, Silurian, Gotland, paleoecology]
Bodily preserved sponges as well as isolated spicules are described from Silurian strata on Gotland, Sweden. Pyritized and calcareous specimens of Hindia sphaeroidalis Duncan, 1879 occur from the Lower Visby (Llandovery) to Hemse Formation (Ludlow). Among isolated spicules, octatines of Astraeospongium patina Roemer, 1861 are predominant. Calcareous spicules of Phobetractinia polymorpha Reif, 1968, Dvorcia mira Nekvasilova & Stemprokova, 1960, probably Reifelia diffissa Mostler, 1996, as well as isolated tricranoclones of Hindia, and spicules of unidentified taxa are reported for the first time.

KOOPS T., RHEBERGEN F. 2006. Zittelella op het spoor. Grondboor en Hamer 60, 4: 92-97.
The assemblage of erratic Ordovician sponges from Baltica collected in the NE-part of The Netherlands and adjacent German border area demonstrates striking similarities with those of North-America (Laurentia), China, Argentina and Australia. However, extensive investigations show distinct characteristics of each of the associations. Until recently, the anthaspidellid Zittelella, which is common in Middle-Ordovician strata of North America, had not been recognized in the Baltic assemblage. The first specimen, a silicified erratic sponge body from Gotland, Sweden, has been recognized in the collections the Museum of Evolution, Uppsala University (Sweden), which was followed by some more erratic specimens from The Netherlands. [the English summary of Dutch text]

RHEBERGEN F. 2007. Revision of the species Astraeospongium patina Roemer, 1861, based on Ordovician bedrock speciments from Estonia. GFF 129, 1: 17-22; https://doi.org/10.1080/11035890701291017
[keywords: Porifera, Heteractinida, Astraeospongium, Ordovician, Estonia, Baltica]
Specimens of Astraeospongium patina Roemer, 1861 from Lower-Middle Ordovician (Arenig-Llanvirn) and from Upper Ordovician (Caradoc) deposits in Aluvere and in the Maardu region, Estonia, are described, demonstrating the validity of the species. These are the first bodily preserved specimens reported from Baltic bedrock, and the oldest representatives of the Astraeospongiidae known to date. Previous reports by Roemer (1861), Kiaer (1908) and Reitner (1992) are discussed, and a comparison of A. patina Roemer, 1861 with A. meniscum (Roemer, 1848) is given. Spicules in comparable parts of A. patina are considerably smaller (about 1 mm) than in those of A. meniscum (6-7 mm).

RHEBERGEN F. 2007. The Ordovician sponge Palaeomanon cratera (Roemer, 1848) as an erratic on Gotland (Sweden). GFF 129, 1: 23-29; https://doi.org/10.1080/11035890701291023
[keywords: Porifera, Astylospongiidae, Ordovician, erratics, Baltica, Laurentia, Gotland, palaeo-biogeography]
Recent cataloguing of collections of Late Ordovician erratic sponges from Gotland (Sweden) in Swedish museums has revealed the presence of Palaeomanon cratera (Roemer, 1848), previously known only from Silurian strata in Tennessee (USA) and the Northwest Territories (Canada). The species forms part of a rich sponge assemblage occurring on Gotland, representing one of three associations in north and northwest Europe, and originating from unknown source areas in Baltica. Palynomorphs extracted from adhering sediment document a Late Ordovician (Ashgill) age; thus, they are the oldest representatives of the species known to date. Naturally, this has implications for the palaeobiogeography of Palaeomanon, in relation to faunal exchange between Baltica and Laurentia; a possible migration from Baltica to Laurentia is discussed.

RHEBERGEN F. 2007. Ordovician and Silurian sponges as erratics from Baltica. In: Ebbestad, J.O.R., Wickström, L.M. & Högström, A.E.S. (eds). WOGOGOB 2007 Field guide and Abstracts. Rapporter och meddelanden 128, 104-105.

RHEBERGEN F. 2007. Baltic Ordovician compound sponges as erratics on Gotland (Sweden), in northern Germany and the eastern Netherlands. Geologie en Mijnbouw 86, 4; DOI: 10.1017/S0016774600023581
Compound orchocladine sponges are unusual in the Early Palaeozoic. In Europe, silicified material of Late Ordovician age has hitherto been referred to as Aulocopium aurantium Oswald, 1847 and the invalid Aulocopium compositum Conwentz, 1905. An examination of new material has resulted in the recognition of a new genus, Hydraspongia, with two new species, H. polycephala and H. erecta, and a third new species, Perissocoelia megahabra, to which most specimens can now be assigned. These taxa form part of rich erratic sponge assemblages, which originate from unknown source areas in the Baltic, and have been collected in northern and western Europe from fluvial sandy deposits of the Eridanos River system, which drained the Baltic area from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene.

back to top

RHEBERGEN F. 2008. Ordovician fluvial erratics from Baltica in The Netherlands and northern Germany. In: Hints, O.; Ainsaar, L.; Männik, P. & Meidla, T.: The Seventh Baltic Stratigraphical Conference. Abstracts & Field Guide, p.59; Tallinn.

RHEBERGEN F. 2008. Samengestelde ordovicische zwerfsteensponzen - over koppen en kappen. Grondboor en Hamer 62, 5: 101-107.
Al meer dan honderd jaar zijn ze bekend: verkiezelde sponzen met meerdere koppen, als zwerfstenen van onbekende herkomst en doorgaans beschouwd als enkele van de vele vormen van Aulocopium. In vier Zweedse musea liggen buitengewoon mooie exemplaren, ooit verzameld op Gotland, maar nooit beschreven. Deze sponzen zijn de afgelopen jaren onderwerp van studie geweest, samen met exemplaren in Nederlandse en Duitse verzamelingen, afkomstig uit het WWWgebied en van Sylt (Afb. 1). De meeste ervan zijn ondergebracht in drie nieuwe soorten, Hydraspongia polycephala, Hydraspongia erecta en Perissocoelia megahabra. Van geen enkel ander continent zijn tot nu toe sponzen beschreven met een ontwikkeling als bij Hydraspongia. Daarmee versterkt het sponzengezelschap van Baltica zijn eigen karakter. [introduction - paper in Dutch]


RHEBERGEN F. 2009. Ordovician sponges (Porifera) and other silicifications from Baltica in Neogene and Pleistocene fluvial deposits of the Netherlands and northern Germany. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 58, 1; DOI: 10.3176/earth.2009.1.03
Fluvial deposits of Miocene to Early Pleistocene age in Germany and the Netherlands were laid down in the delta of the Eridanos River System, but the exact provenance of this material continues to be a subject of discussion. The aim of the present study is twofold. Firstly, a comparison of Ordovician sponges in these deposits with those from northern Estonia and the St Petersburg region (Russia) demonstrates that these erratics originated from the drainage area of the Pra Neva, a tributary of the Eridanos. Secondly, the importance of Late Ordovician silicified boulders, which yield forms of preservation that are unknown in comparable fossils, preserved in situ, is outlined. Some recommendations for future studies are made.


BOS J., van KEULEN P., KOOPS T., RHEBERGEN F., SMIT R., de VRIES P. 2011. Spiculiet, een zoektocht in een grijs gebied. Grondboor en Hamer 65, 5: 145-149.

BOTTING J. P., RHEBERGEN F. 2011. A remarkable new Middle Sandbian (Ordovician) hexactinellid sponge in Baltic erratics. Scripta Geologica 143: 1-14.
[keywords: Porifera, spicules, Dictyospongioidea, acanthohexactine, Baltica, erratic]
A new species of complex hexactinellid sponge, Haljalaspongia inaudita, is described from fluvially transported blocks found in northwestern Germany, near the Dutch border, but which probably originated from the eastern Baltic region. The heavily folded wall is composed of multiple spicule layers, including dermal and gastral layers of acanthohexactines, and a central layer of sub-parallel monaxons. The monaxial layer is lined on one side by a reticulate array of smooth monaxons. The sponge is difficult to assign to any known fossil or recent group, but shares some features with the dictyospongioid family Docodermatidae.

RHEBERGEN F. 2011. Short note on three species of Ordovician Orchocladina (Demospongea, Porifera). Scripta Geologica 143: 123-126.
[keywords: erratics, sponges, repository, classification]
The type and only specimen of Fibrocoelia tubantiensis van Kempen, that was housed in the palaeontological collection of the Geological Institute of the University of Amsterdam, has been reposited in the Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity - Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. Syltrochos pyramidoidalis von Hacht, placed in an uncertain order and family by Finks & Rigby, is revised on the basis of new material. This has revealed that the skeleton is composed of spheroclones, so that the species has to be assigned to the Astylospongiidae von Zittel. The species name Carpospongia langei von Hacht is invalid, being a junior synonym of Carpospongia pogrebowi Asatkin.


RHEBERGEN F. 2012. Ordovizische Spongien aus dem Anstehenden in Estland und der St. Petersburg-Region verglichen mit erratischen Spongien in Deutschland. Geschiebekunde aktuell 28: 1-11.
Ordovician sponge associations from strata of the Haljala Stage (CII-DI) in Estonia and the St. Petersburg region are briefly described. Composition and age show strong similarities with part of the erratic sponge associations, i.e. astylospongiids that were deposited fluvially during Miocene and Pliocene times in northern Germany and the Netherlands, as part of the so called 'blue' sponge assemblage, which is always connected with the erratic assemblage of 'lavenderblue cherts'. In contrast, anthaspidellids, such as Aulocopium aurantium, which predominate in the erratic assemblages, are nearly absent in those from Baltic strata. The species Carpospongia langei von Hacht, 1994 is invalid since it is a junior synonym of C. pogrebowi Asatkin, 1949. Suggestions for future investigations are presented in the end. [English abstract of German text]

RHEBERGEN F. 2012. Ordovicische sponzen uit vast gesteente in Estland en bij St. Petersburg en hun relatie tot "onze" zwerfsteensponzen. Grondboor en Hamer 66, 3: 294-300.
RHEBERGEN F. 2012. Hexactinellide sponzen in Ordovicische "baksteenkalk". Grondboor en Hamer 66, 6: 438-443.
van KEULEN P. S. F., SMIT R., RHEBERGEN F. 2012. Ordovizische Lavendelblaue Hornsteine in miozänen und altpleistozänen Ablagerungen des 'Baltischen Flusssystems'. Archiv für Geschiebekunde 6, 3: 155-204.
Lavenderblue cherts form a characteristic part of the quartz sands, which were deposited during Tertiary and Early Pleistocene times into the Northwest European Basin by the Baltic River System. The present study deals with several aspects of the lavenderblue cherts: their typology, provenance, ways and trajects of transport, and the forms of silicification manifest in them. The focus is on lavenderblue cherts collected from deposits in the County of Bentheim (Niedersachsen, Germany) and the adjacent eastern part of the Netherlands. The lavenderblue cherts are compared with other Ordovician silicified erratics of the same area. Fossils and lithological features indicate that the lavenderblue cherts mainly originate from two Ordovician periods, the Middle Sandbian Haljala and Keila stages (CIII - DII) and the Upper Katian Pirgu stage (FIc). The unique character of the lavenderblue cherts is evident from their flora and fauna, which are rather distinct from those in coeval, brown silicified types of limestone, such as brick-like limestones, brown Pirgu limestone and öjlemyr flint. [initial part of an extensive summary]


back to top

BAARS C., POPOV L., RHEBERGEN F., KLISHEVICH A. I. 2014. Early Silurian (Rhuddanian) rugose corals and sponges from the Ak-Kerme Peninsula, Kazakhstan. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 88: 279-295. [reported by FC&P38, 2: 130]
KOOPS T., RHEBERGEN F. 2014. De 'Pindaspons' en een nieuw 'lavendelblauw' gezelschap van Krijtsponzen. Grondboor en Hamer 68, 1: 12-17.
RHEBERGEN F. 2014. A new Late Ordovician erratic anthaspidellid sponge (Porifera) originating from Baltica. Scripta Geologica 146: 1-15, 3 plates, 3 figures.
[keywords: Anthaspidellidae, erratics, Brevaspidella]
The new anthaspidellid taxon Brevaspidella dispersa is erected for specimens recovered from the Late Ordovician sponge assemblages of the island of Gotland, Sweden and the Dutch-German border region. In the latter area, they are collected from Early Pleistocene fluvial deposits of the Baltic River System, whereas those from Gotland are part of Late Pleistocene glacial or fluvio-glacial deposits. The provenance of both assemblages is uncertain, but they probably originated from an Ordovician basin in the northern Baltic Sea or the Bothnian Gulf, west of Finland. As yet, Brevaspidella dispersa gen. et sp. nov. is restricted to the Gotland-German-Dutch sponge association and has not been found in the assemblage of nearly-coeval 'lavender-blue cherts' and 'blue sponges'. The new taxon is closely related to the genus Anthaspidella, but differs in the aquiferous system and in having a well developed concentrically wrinkled dermal layer.
RHEBERGEN F., BOTTING J. P. 2014. A new Silurian (Llandovery, Telychian) Sponge Assemblage from Gotland, Sweden. Fossils and Strata 60: 87 pp, 23 pls, 11 figs, 3 tabs.
A diverse assemblage of silicified sponges, including orchocladines, rhizomorines, stromatoporoids, hexactinellids and non-lithistid demosponges, has been collected from scree accumulations in a restricted area along the western coast of the Island of Gotland, Sweden. The assemblage comprises 29 species in 20 genera, 18 species of which have not previously been recorded from Baltica, together with several taxa in open nomenclature. This chapter discusses this sponge assemblage in detail. It first gives a brief introduction on the geological settings, and the material, repository, methods and terminology used for the study of the assemblage. The chapter discusses the sponge assemblage under various families, classes and orders such as Hexactinellida, Orchocladina, Stromatoporoidea, Rhizomorina and Streptosolenida.

RHEBERGEN F. 2015. Brevaspidella dispersa, een nieuwe naam voor 'Aulocopium met verspreide kanalen'. Grondboor en Hamer 69, 3: 114-117.


RHEBERGEN F., MUNNECKE A., JAROCHOWSKA E. 2016. First report of Archaeoscyphia rectilinearis (Porifera) from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden. GFF 138, 3: 424-429; https://doi.org/10.1080/11035897.2016.1141796
[keywords: Silurian, Wenlock, Gotland, Porifera, Demospongea, Orchocladina]
A specimen of the orchocladinid sponge Archaeoscyphia rectilinearis de Freitas (1989) is presented here as the first representative of the Anthaspidellidae from Wenlock strata on Gotland (Sweden). Other coeval occurrences are not yet known from the Silurian of Baltica. This specimen forms a link between the recently described sponge assemblage from Llandovery (Telychian) strata on Gotland and those from Wenlock to Ludlow strata from Arctic Canada. In addition, the specimen fills a gap in the fossil record of Silurian non-stromatoporoid sponges, which are poorly known worldwide.


KOOPS T., RHEBERGEN F. 2017. Rhizopsis en andere speldenkussensponzen uit het Krijt. Grondboor en Hamer 71: 46-50.
van KEULEN P., RHEBERGEN F. 2017. Typology and fossil assemblage of Sandbian (Ordovician) 'baksteenkalk' an erratic silicified limestone of Baltic origin from the northeastern Netherlands and adjacent areas of Germany. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 66, 4: 198-219.
[keywords: algae, Baltica, bioclasts, Eridanos, Haljala, Ordovician, silicified carbonate]
This study seeks to describe 'baksteenkalk', an erratic silicified bioclastic carbonate of the Upper Sandbian from the eastern part of the Netherlands. To date, baksteenkalk has received little attention among palaeontologists. This is to be regretted on two grounds. First, baksteenkalk contains a varied fossil flora and fauna comprising many species, several of which are not or only rarely found in coeval rocks. Second, owing to a complicated silicification process, fossils, in particular algae, have preserved exceptional anatomical details. [introductory part of an extensive abstract; list of taxa (usually identified to species level) of erratics studied, presented in table 2 of this paper, contains 11 algae, 28 trilobites, 25 articulate and 10 inarticulate brachiopods, 20 gastropods, 7 cephalopods, 3 bivalves, 3 rostroconchs, 1 monoplacophoran, 10 bryozoans, 8 echinoderms, 2 receptaculitids, 2 hyolitha, 4 machaeridians, 2 conulariids, ostracods (undifferentiated), 3 graptolites, undifferentiated cornulitids and tentaculitids, 2 problematica (Ancientia sp. and Tomaculum problematicum Groom 1902), 3 ichnofossils, and 6 sponges; among the latter listed are: an undetermined brachiospongioid sponge, Haljalaspongia inaudita Botting & Rhebergen 2011, Hindia sphaeroidalis Duncan 1879, hexactinellid spicules, monaxonoid ('root-tuft') spicules, and an undetermined chiastoclonellid sponge]

Vlasta ZUKALOVA (1925-2018)

back to top

PRICHYSTAL A., JASKOVA V. 2015. Vyznamné zivotní vyrocí RNDr. Vlasty Zukalove [An important life anniversary of RNDr. Vlasta Zukalova] Prírodovedne studie Muzea Prostejovska 17: 7-21; Prostejov.
The contribution is devoted to the 90th birthday anniversary of outstanding Moravian palaeontologist RNDr. Vlasta Zukalova who connected her professional carrier with the Brno Branch of the former institution Ústrední ústav geologický (Central Geological Institute; Czech Geological Survey in recent time). She studied especially the Devonian and Carboniferous stromatoporoidea and other groups of fossil fauna in limestone formations of the Moravian Palaeozoic. In the 70th years of the 20th century V. Zukalová had a unique possibility to elaborate palaeontological finds from many deep boreholes carried out for the oil industry in Moravia at that time. The article is complemented with the list of her publications in geological journals and report?s manuscripts deposited in the archives of Geofond, Prague. In the informal commemorative final part of the article, her colleagues and co-workers have described their observations and experience connected with her cooperation or meeting. [original abstract]

[list of 31 published geological papers of Vlasta ZUKALOVA, presented below, was taken from the paper presented above; note also presence of numerous unpublished reports authored and co-authored by V. Zukalova, housed at Geofond Archives, Prague]

ZUKALOVA V. 1958. Stromatoporoidea hranického devonu. Sborník Ústredního ústavu geologického, Oddíl paleontologický 24: 313-348; Praha.
ZUKALOVA V. 1958. Predbezná zpráva o nálezu spodnokarbonských korálu v okolí Hranic na Morave. Vestník Ústredního ústavu geologického 33: 203-205; Praha.
DVORAK J., SLEZAK L., ZUKALOVA V. 1960. Zpráva o geologickém mapování devonu a spodního karbonu Moravského krasu. Zprávy o geologických výzkumech v roce 1958: 25-26; Praha.
ZUKALOVA V. 1961. Spodnokarbonská korálová fauna z okolí Hranic na Morave a z valounu karbonských slepencu v okolí Brna. Sborník Ústredního ústavu geologického 26, Oddíl paleontologický: 317-356; Praha.
ZUKALOVA V. 1961. Zpráva o výzkumu stromatoporoidové a korálové fauny devonských vápencu Moravského krasu. Zprávy o geologických výzkumech v roce 1960: 88-89; Praha.
ZUKALOVA V. 1961. Otázka hranice stredního a svrchního devonu ve vápencích Moravského krasu. Vestník Ústredního ústavu geologického 36: 461-463; Praha.
ZUKALOVA V. 1963. Význam stromatoporoidové fauny pro stratigrafii devonských vápencu Moravského krasu. Sborník 14. sjezdu Spolecnosti pro mineralogii a geologii: 67-72; Brno.
ZUKALOVA V. 1964. Výzkum stromatoporoidové fauny devonských vápencu Moravského krasu. Zprávy o geologických výzkumech v roce 1963: 162-164; Praha.
ZUKALOVA V. 1965. Korálová fauna uhelného vápence z Osoblazska. Vestník Ústredního ústavu geologického 40, 4: 283-289; Praha.
CHLUPAC I., ZIKMUNDOVA J., ZUKALOVA V. 1968. Relationships of the Devonian and Early Lower Carboniferous faunas from Moravia. International Geological Congress, Session 23, Publication 9: 63-71; Praha.
ZUKALOVA V. 1969. Fauny moravského devonu a jejich paleogeografické vztahy. Vestník Ústredního ústavu geologického 44, 3: 155-156; Praha.
ZUKALOVA V. 1971. Stromatoporoidea from the Middle and Upper Devonian of the Moravian Karst. Rozpravy Ústredního ústavu geologického 37, 5: 1-143; Praha. [FC&P 39_1: 21]
ZUKALOVA V. 1971. Nekteré nové poznatky i problémy ve studiu stromatoporoidové fauny. Casopis pro mineralogii a geologii 16, 3: 338-339; Praha.
ZUKALOVA V. 1973. In V. Holub (ed.): Carboniferous and Permian of the Bohemian Massif; Excursion guide S.C.C.S. Field Meeting in Czechoslovakia, Ostrava-Brno-Praha, September 17-27; Ústrední ústav geologický, 155pp; Praha.
ZUKALOVA V. 1974. The Paleozoic basement of the Tertiary in the Nítkovice-2 borehole in the Carpathian Foredeep in Moravia. Vestník Ústredního ústavu geologického 49, 4: 193-200; Praha. [FC&P 04_1: 41]
ZUKALOVA V. 1976. Biostratigrafie paleozoika v podkladu a predpolí Karpat východne od Brna. Casopis pro mineralogii a geologii 21, 4: 369-385; Praha. [FC&P 07_1: 26]
ZUKALOVA V. 1976. Upper Devonian Stromatoporoids, Foraminifers and Algae in the borehole Nepasice 1 (Eastern Bohemia). Vestník Ústredního ústavu geologického 51, 5: 281-284; Praha. [FC&P 07_1: 26]
ZUKALOVA V. 1977. Biostratigrafie paleozoika v hlubokých vrtech východne od Brna. Zemní Plyn Nafta 22, 1: 25-33; Hodonín.
ZUKALOVA V., SKOCEK V. 1979. Mass extinctions of organisms and lithologic boundaries in the Palaeozoic sediments of Moravia. Vestník Ústredního ústavu geologického 54, 3: 129-142; Praha.
ZUKALOVA V. 1980. Vývoj a masové vyhynutí organismu v paleozoiku na Morave. Scripta Facultatis scientiarum naturalium Universitatis Purkynianae Brunensis, Geologia 10, 7: 343-350; Brno.
ZUKALOVA V. 1981. Stromatoporoids of the Devonian carbonate complex in Moravia (Czechoslovakia). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 25, 3/4: 671-679; Warszawa. [dated 1980] [FC&P 10_2: 76]
ZUKALOVA V. 1981. Stromatoporoidea, Foraminifera and [red] algae from the Givetian and Frasnian of the Krásná-1 borehole. Sborník geologických ved, Paleontologie 24: 63-94; Praha. [FC&P 10_2: 76]
ZUKALOVA V. 1981. Prehled mikrofosílií v givetských a frasnských rifových vápencích na Morave. Zemní Plyn Nafta 26, 4: 561-570; Hodonín.
ZUKALOVA V. 1981. Rozsírení a stratigrafický význam stromatoporoideí a mikrofosílií v devonských vápencích (givetu a frasnu) v hlubokých vrtech jizne a jihovýchodne od Brna. Knihovnicka zemního plynu a nafty 2: 37-57; Hodonín. [FC&P 11_2: 44]
ZUKALOVA V., KALVODA J., GALLE A., HLADIL J. 1981. Biostratigrafie paleozoika v hlubokých vrtech jihovýchodne od Brna. Knihovnicka zemního plynu a nafty 2: 7-30; Hodonín. [FC&P 11_2: 44]
ZUKALOVA V., CHLUPAC I. 1982. Stratigrafická klasifikace nemetamorfovaného devonu moravsko-slezské oblasti. Casopis pro mineralogii a geologii 27, 3: 225-241; Praha.
ZUKALOVA V. 1984. Biostratigrafie devonu ve vrtu Ostravice NP-824 jizne od Ostravy. Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica 3: 219-236; Praha. [FC&P 15_1.2: 46]
DVORAK J., FRIAKOVA O., KALVODA J., KUKAL Z., ZUKALOVA V. 1984. Vývoj sedimentace behem svrchního devonu a spodního karbonu na vrtech Mokrá S1 a S2 v j. cásti Moravského krasu a jeho srovnání s okolím Hranic na Morave. Casopis Slezského muzea v Opave, Série A, prírodní vedy 33: 205-216; Opava.
FRIAKOVA O., ZUKALOVA V. 1986. Biostratigraphy of the Devonian carbonates in the region south of Ostrava. Casopis Moravského muzea, Prírodní vedy 71, 1-2: 23-53; Brno. [FC&P 16_1: 76]
GALLE A., FRIAKOVA O., HLADIL J., KALVODA J., KREJCI Z., ZUKALOVA V. 1989. Biostratigraphy of Middle and Upper Devonian carbonates of Moravia, Czechoslovakia. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 14, 3; Devonian of the World III: 633-645; Calgary. [dated 1988] [FC&P 18_2: 29]
ZUKALOVA V. 2004. Devonská stromatoporoidová fauna v hlubokých vrtech na severovýchodní Morave. Prírodovedné studie Muzea Prostejovska 7: 1-74; Prostejov. [FC&P 39_1: 22]